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How Many Wives Did Imam Hassan (AS) Truly Have?

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One of the fascinating dimensions to explore in the lives of individuals, especially global figures, is the investigation of the number of their spouses and children, and the quality of their interactions with them.

For this reason, in this article, we aim to discuss the family of Imam Hassan Al-Mujtaba (peace be upon him). This topic has been extensively researched by many historians; unfortunately, there are also misrepresentations and inaccuracies present in historical writings. To the extent that today, in what is termed the “era of space and atom,” inaccuracies are attributed to the sacred persona of Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) even in the Encyclopedia of Islam [1] written by orientalists!

Hence, it is essential and necessary to offer detailed discussions on this matter to clear the sacred name of the infallible from any misattributions.

Regarding the children of the Imam, there’s not much contention. While there might be minor differences in their count, these disparities haven’t led to any undue allegations; they remain within the realm of historical debate. However, regarding the number of his wives, many historians have taken an extreme path, distancing themselves greatly from the truth.

Therefore, our duty is to research and investigate, to unveil obscured truths to the best of our ability. A common misconception that has spread among people and is written by many historians, including some Shia historians, is that Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) had numerous wives. Although some historians agree on this point, they never come to a consensus on its interpretation.

Enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), as well as those who haven’t grasped the exalted concept of Imamate and have never tasted knowledge from the pure spring of guardianship, have latched onto this topic to undermine the unparalleled stature of Imam Hassan (peace be upon him). They portray the Imam as indulgent and interpret his peace treaty with the same bias. Opponents claim that the Imam abandoned battle to escape the challenges of leadership and for leisure. They hold onto any narrative that supports their claim, interpreting even the articles of his peace treaty to fit their narrative.

In contrast to the above group, there are the lovers of Ahlul Bayt (peace be upon them) who, while acknowledging the main point (having numerous wives), interpret and understand it differently. This view stands in stark contrast to the former; they don’t see this as diminishing the stature of the Imam (peace be upon him). On the contrary, they justify it and consider it one of his merits.

The reason this group holds such a belief is that the Imam (peace be upon him) himself did not proactively seek to marry. It was the women and their parents who were eager to join in matrimony with the Imam and felt honored by it. In such an environment, the Imam accepted certain benefits.

Now that these two opposing views exist on this historical topic, it’s apt to conduct a thorough investigation. Firstly, to clarify its nature, validity, or falsehood; and secondly, if the matter is proven, its reasons should be studied to ascertain which group is right.

General Overview of the Discussion:

 Given the points raised earlier, the discussion will encompass:

  1. The number of children of Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (peace be upon him).
  2. The number of Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba’s (peace be upon him) wives.
  3. Mention of traditions, reports, and their critique and examination.
  4. Quotations from theoreticians.
  5. Critique, examination, analysis, and conclusion.

Al-Ya’qubi, who believes the Imam had 15 children: 8 boys and 7 girls. Ya’qubi, in his book, mentions the names of the Imam’s sons but does not allude to the names of the daughters.

The late Tabarsi, in “A’lam al-Waray”, mentions that Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) had 16 children, both sons, and daughters. He lists their names in his book, mentioning them alongside their mothers’ names. They include:

  • Zaid bin Hassan and his two sisters Umm al-Hassan and Umm al-Hussain, their mother being Umm Bashir, the daughter of Abu Mas’ud Khazraji.
  • Hassan bin Hassan, his mother being Khawlah, the daughter of Manzur Fazari.
  • Umar bin Hassan and his two brothers Abdullah and Qasim, their mother being Umm Walad. Both Abdullah and Qasim were martyred alongside their uncle, Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) in Karbala.
  • Abd al-Rahman bin Hassan, his mother being Umm Walad.
  • Hussein bin Hassan, his brother Talha, and his sister Fatimah, their mother being Umm Ishaq, the daughter of Talha bin Ubaydullah Taymi.
  • Abubakr bin Hassan, who reportedly was martyred in Karbala.
  • Umm Abdullah, Umm Fatimah, Umm Salma, and Ruqayyah who had different mothers.[2]

It’s fitting to mention the view of Sheikh Mufid here, which aligns with the middle ground. In his book “Al-Irshad”, he considers the number of Imam Hassan’s (peace be upon him) children to be 15 [3]. Given the scholarly stature and meticulousness of Sheikh Mufid and his agreement with many historians, this view can be considered more favorable. The names of the Imam’s children in “Al-Irshad” are the same as those in “A’lam al-Waray”, with the exception of Abubakr. Sheikh Mufid believes he is the same as Abdullah, who was martyred in Karbala. In any case, the latter viewpoint seems more logical.

1. The Legacy of Imam Hassan’s Children (Peace be upon him)

A remarkable aspect concerning the progeny of Imam Hassan Mojtaba (peace be upon him) – whose illustrious contributions have been celebrated and lauded – is that several of them were graced with the opportunity to participate in the tragic episode of Karbala, with most meeting their end as martyrs. Other descendants, who weren’t blessed with such an opportunity, had such exemplary characters that history has perpetually celebrated their righteous deeds. Let’s delve into one such example:

Hassan Muthanna One of the sons of Imam Hassan Mojtaba (peace be upon him) was notably known as “Hassan Al-Muthanna”. He was present alongside his revered uncle in Karbala. He battled valiantly until he was overwhelmed by numerous injuries and fell. People assumed he had perished and aimed to sever his head from his body, only to discover he was still alive. At this juncture, “Isma”, the son of Kharija Fazari, intervened on his behalf. Given that his mother was from the Fazari lineage, Isma took it upon himself to care for and nurse him back to health. Hassan Al-Muthanna later wed Fatima, the daughter of Imam Hussain (peace be upon him). Most of the Hassanis who rose against the injustices during the Abbasid era hailed from the lineage of this noble and virtuous individual.[4]

2. Count of Wives

Opinions regarding the number of Imam’s wives have reached us through two channels based on historical sources:

a) Through accounts;

b) Through narrations.

It is imperative that we individually scrutinize each of the aforementioned aspects. Ultimately, after critiquing the presented materials, we should deduce the desired conclusion.

Historical Reports

In historical books, various reports have been mentioned on this subject. We will reference some of them.

Abu al-Hassan Mada’ini: “Hassan bin Ali married frequently… When his wives were counted, they numbered seventy.”[5]

Balkhi: “Hassan bin Ali married two hundred free women.”[6]

Abu Talib Makki: “He married two hundred and fifty women. It’s also said that he married three hundred women. His father, Ali bin Abi Talib, disapproved of this.”[7]

Hussein Emadzadeh: “Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) married four hundred women.”[8]

Sheikh Razi Al-Yasin: “Considering his offspring, the number of Imam Mojtaba’s (peace be upon him) wives doesn’t exceed between eight to ten.”[9]

Analysis and Review

A modest reflection on history indicates that no credible reports on this matter have been received from Ali, Imam Hassan himself, or the other infallible Imams (peace be upon them). The narratives and reports attributed to Ali (peace be upon him) are mere attributions, especially those from after the first Hijri century; this time gap itself casts doubt on the credibility of these news items.

What’s more significant is that if such a thing about Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) was true, the Umayyad propaganda machinery, led by Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan, wouldn’t have simply ignored it. They would have undoubtedly exploited it in an attempt to tarnish the image of the Imam. It’s worth noting that they have a history of such actions; to the extent that they portrayed his venerable father, Ali (peace be upon him), as someone who didn’t perform prayers in the eyes of the people of Sham (Syria).

Considering this point, no reports on this matter have been received from that time. Therefore, the above point alone is a strong reason to consider the claim as false.

Who is Spreading the Rumor?

The question arises: Who and with what motivation is the source of the spread of such reports?

Research in history reveals that when Mansoor Dawaniqi ascended to power in 136 AH, despite his allegiance to the Hassanis, and when he saw the Banu al-Hassan, especially their eminent figures and warriors, as a nuisance – especially as significant uprisings by the Alawis and Hassani nobles were occurring, sometimes even threatening the collapse and destruction of Mansoor – it is in this crucial event that Mansoor began a “character assassination” campaign. In this regard, the first arrow of slander and accusation is directed towards the pure lineage of Imam Hassan (peace be upon him). To justify his illegitimate caliphate, Mansoor, in a sermon to the people of Khorasan, explicitly stated:

“The sons of Abu Talib have no share in the caliphate. Their father, Ali, aspired for leadership but eventually faced defeat and, ultimately, himself became a martyr. After him, his son Hassan sought leadership. By Allah! He accepted the monies that were offered to him, Muawiyah deceived him and deprived him of his rule until he returned from the city of Kufa to his own city (Medina) and turned his attention to women; one day he would marry one, and the very next day, he would divorce another. He continued in this manner until he passed away on his deathbed.”[10]

The Malicious Agenda of Mansoor

The wicked and devilish actions of Mansoor (the second Abbasid caliph) which were mainly driven by political motives, provided a foundation for poisonous propaganda against the Imam (peace be upon him). This facilitated Mansoor’s supporters, especially the salaried scribes and sometimes even unwitting friends unfamiliar with the best interests of the Muslim Ummah, to inadvertently align with them. This exaggeration reached such an extent that they made a mountain out of a molehill, and raised the number of the Imam’s spouses to an astronomical figure of 400!

These fabricators weaponized this claim against the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) and Shi’ism, hoping to consolidate their illegitimate rule. Astonishingly, there’s no trace of these alleged four hundred wives; except for a few, which was entirely normal and reasonable at the time.

Thus, it’s evident that most of these reports were concocted with sinister political intentions by unworthy and usurping adversaries and, regrettably, have found their way into historical books. It’s not that surprising how these egregious lies ended up in books because the regime was in their hands. Consequently, uncommitted historians and writers, with their resources and directives, penned these falsehoods into historical resources. This is reminiscent of how “forged hadiths” were also deceitfully introduced.

Other Issues

While we have discussed Mansoor’s speech and debunked its fabrications, there are several other issues worth noting. We’ll briefly touch on a few.

Severe Contradictions Indicate Blatant Lies

 Considering the significant discrepancies in reports and opinions regarding the number of Imam Hassan’s (peace be upon him) wives, ranging from eight to four hundred, it becomes evident that hidden forces were at play. They aimed to tarnish the radiant and divine image of the Imam (peace be upon him) with baseless rumors, undermining the virtues of this eminent figure.

Cause Indicates Reason

Another way to highlight the exaggerations and fabrications on this subject is to consider that if someone had this many spouses, they would have several times more children. Especially during that era, when there was a significant emphasis on having many children and pride in their abundance (especially sons). Prophetic traditions also encouraged marriage and having numerous offspring, such as: “Marry and multiply, for I will boast about your numbers on the Day of Resurrection, even if it includes the unborn.”[11]

Despite all this, the maximum number of children attributed to Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) in various reports is 31,[12] while some historical texts mention a number as low as 7[13].

A Predicted Question Answered

If someone assumes that: “Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) married infertile women, or they prevented pregnancies, or many children were born and later passed away,” the response is clear. Firstly, such an assumption is not logically acceptable and seems highly unlikely it could be possible with few wives but not hundreds. Secondly, there is no historical record or report supporting this claim. Thus, the falsity of such claims becomes even more evident. It’s not surprising that such cunning fabricators overlooked this point; forgetfulness is a hallmark of liars. A liar has a weak memory; Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “One of the ways Allah assists against liars for the sake of the truth is through forgetfulness.”[14]

Unknown Wives

Another reason to reject the aforementioned claim is that with all these wives attributed to Imam Hassan (peace be upon him), shouldn’t at least half or 31 of them be identifiable by their parents, tribes, etc.? Yet, many of these alleged wives are so unknown that even their names remain a mystery.

Only Three Sons-in-law!

Considering all the claimed wives attributed to the Imam (peace be upon him), it would make sense for him to have at least 50 daughters, and consequently, the same number of sons-in-law recorded. However, in this regard, only three sons-in-law have been introduced for the Imam:

  1. Imam Zain al-Abidin (peace be upon him), husband of Fatimah (Umm Abdullah);
  2. Abdullah bin Zubair, husband of Umm al-Hassan;
  3. Amro bin Mundhir, husband of Umm Salma.[15]

Now the question arises: Is it plausible that from four hundred wives, only three or at most seven daughters were born, and only three of them got married with no trace of the others?

Clearly, if the claimed details were correct, history should have recorded many more children and sons-in-law for the Imam. However, as mentioned, only three sons-in-law of the Imam have been cited.

Comparison of Imam Hassan’s Era with the Present Time

Upon a careful comparison of the era of Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) with today’s age, the validity and credibility of the raised concerns are confirmed. This is because, despite modern economic conditions and the extensive global and regional advertising promoting population control – which has been very effective to the extent that according to a survey conducted in Germany, “65% of the respondents said they would prefer to have a dog than a child!”[16]

However, despite this, it was recently reported in newspapers: “A man with twelve wives has forty children.” Of course, this news is just one example, and there have been many other instances seen or heard, such as a man with two wives having nineteen children or another man with four wives having forty children.

In summary, nowadays, the average number of children per woman is 3. Therefore, even with today’s statistics and all its limitations, a person who would have four hundred wives should have at least 1,200 children. However, for Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) during that specific time – when great importance was given to having many offspring, and they even took pride in it – a maximum of 31 children and only three sons-in-law are recorded. Hence, the above comparison also confirms and validates the falsehood of claims regarding Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) having numerous wives.

Another Issue

Another more significant concern related to the controversial topic of having multiple wives is the Imam’s societal and political engagements. These engagements never allowed him the time or opportunity for such frivolous pursuits and problematic entertainments. Indeed, the Imam was often responsible for resolving the people’s affairs. Regarding this, Madaini narrates:

“Imam Mujtaba (peace be upon him) would sit in his prayer niche for worship every day after the morning prayer until sunrise. However, from sunrise until noon, he addressed the concerns of the people.”[17]

And lastly, another crucial point is considering the immense fondness the Imam had for worship, nightly prayers, staying awake during the night, and fasting, to the extent that even on the day of his martyrdom, he was fasting.[18] His acts of worship were the talk of both the general populace and the elite. The number of his pilgrimage journeys from Medina to Mecca – a distance of 450 kilometers – made on foot, reached twenty-five times.[19] He also divided his wealth for the sake of Allah three times;[20] could such a person, with the above engagements and passions, have four hundred wives?

Doesn’t a just and truth-seeking person become convinced of the existence of a grand conspiracy by the enemies of Islam and the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)? And doesn’t one see the claimed statistics as a sheer lie?

Shiite Narratives

In addition to the reports that were discussed and criticized, there are narratives related to the topic of discussion. While pointing out some of these, we’ll try to critique them to the best of our ability.

Abdullah bin Sinan quotes Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him) as saying:

“Ali said while he was on the pulpit: ‘Do not marry your daughters to Hassan for he is a man who divorces frequently.’ Then a man from Hamdan stood up and said: ‘Indeed, by Allah, we will marry our daughters to him. He is the son of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his progeny, and the son of the Commander of the Faithful. If he wishes, he will keep (the marriage), and if he wishes, he will divorce.’[21]

The late Kulayni quotes Yahya bin Abi Ya’la narrating from Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him):

“Indeed, Hassan bin Ali divorced fifty women. And the Commander of the Faithful (Ali) said: ‘O people of Kufa! Do not give your daughters to Hassan in marriage; for he is a man who divorces his wives…’ “[22]

In Mahasin Barqi, it is narrated from Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him): “A man approached the Commander of the Faithful and said, ‘I have come to seek your advice because Hassan, Hussain, and Abdullah bin Ja’far have proposed for my daughter.’ His Holiness replied: ‘One who is sought for advice must be trustworthy. Regarding my son Hassan, he indeed divorces women. However, Hussain is better for your daughter, so marry her to Hussain.'”[23]

Analysis of the Narratives

Although the aforementioned narratives have been recorded in Shiite books with good intentions, and partly due to simplicity and lack of scrutiny, on specific occasions, the study of the chain of narrators and the content of the traditions proves their weaknesses and flaws.

Regarding the weak chain of the first narrative: In the chain of narrators of the first narrative, which was cited from Abdullah bin Sinan, there are two narrators named Hamid bin Ziyad and Hassan bin Muhammad bin Sama’a. Both belong to the “Waqifiyya” sect, and their narrations are only accepted when there is no strong counter-narrative. Here, there is a counter-narrative, as the undesirability of divorce from an Islamic perspective and luminous traditions is evident to all. The Prophetic saying, “The most detestable lawful act to Allah is divorce.”[24], supports this claim.

Regarding the second narrative: The second narrative, quoted from Yahya bin Abi Ya’la, this name appears in biographical books for two individuals. One is known as “Kufi” and has been authenticated. The other is known as “Razi”, whose status has been debated and not authenticated. The exact status of the latter remains unknown.[25]

Concerning the third narrative: The third narration, taken from Muhammad bin Ali Barqi Kufi, despite being authenticated, is not free from problems. This is because he relied on weak narrators when transmitting traditions. The late Najashi stated, “Muhammad bin Ali Barqi is a completely trustworthy man, but when it comes to transmitting traditions, he relied on weak individuals and has also reported numerous Mursal (incompletely transmitted) traditions.” Therefore, relying on his narrations, which also have counter-narratives, is problematic.[26]

Critique and Examination of the Content of Narratives

There are significant issues when it comes to the content. For instance, in the aforementioned traditions, the term “divorced” (مِطلاق) was attributed to Imam Hassan, peace be upon him. However, frequent divorces imply multiple marriages, which, as discussed earlier, have been refuted. Additionally, a question arises: Why would the Imam, peace be upon him, marry without due diligence and knowledge, only to be compelled to divorce after a short time? Then, which families did these divorced women come from, and what were the reasons for their separation? Who bore witness to these divorces, and who did the divorced women marry afterward?

All these questions remain unanswered, even though the details of other individuals (who are not even comparable to the Imam) have been recorded thoroughly.

The above content presents problems that have been raised regarding the transmitted narratives. However, there’s a specific issue concerning the third narrative, i.e., the narrative of Barqi, which will be posed as questions below:

  • Who was the advisor?
  • Did he act according to the perspective of His Holiness Imam Ali, peace be upon him, so that it could be identified?
  • The superiority of Imam Hussain, peace be upon him, over Imam Hassan, peace be upon him, is clear. But what was his superiority over Abdullah bin Jafar?
  • What led three individuals (two brothers and one cousin) to propose to the same girl at once? Who was this girl, and what merits did she possess?
  • Was this consultation before Imam Ali’s, peace be upon him, advice regarding not marrying a woman to Imam Hassan, peace be upon him or after it?

Narratives of Sunni Scholars

1) Ibn Shahr Ashub, quoting the book “Qut al-Qulub” by Abutalib Makki, states: “Indeed, Hassan bin Ali married 250 women, and it’s said, 300 women! Ali was distressed by this and expressed his agony, to the point that one day during his sermon he stated: ‘Do not marry your daughters to Hassan for he frequently divorces…'”[27]

2) Baladhuri writes: “Hassan bin Ali married 90 women. Subsequently, Imam Ali, peace be upon him, said: ‘Hassan has married so many times and divorced so frequently that I fear his actions will bring enmity from other clans and tribes against us.'”[28]

A critique and examination of the above narratives, especially their narrators, reveal that the source of most of these traditions can be traced back to one of the three narrators below:

  • Abutalib Makki, Muhammad bin Ali bin Atiyya, (d. 380 AH);
  • Muhammad bin Umar Waqidi, (commonly known as Waqidi), a renowned historian, (d. 207 AH);
  • Abulhassan Madaini, Ali bin Muhammad bin Abdullah Basri, (d. 225 AH).

The above narrators, who are often the primary sources of the debated traditions, are not only doubted by Shiite scholars but have also been criticized by Sunni scholars.

Abutalib Makki: Many have deemed his narrations weak and have said that he became delusional in his later life.[29] Scholars have stated: He (Abutalib Makki) quoted traditions that have no basis.[30] Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi has said: In the book “Qut al-Qulub”, there are unsightly and unseemly matters, which themselves testify to their falsehood.[31] Moreover, if someone cites him, it should be said that they are unaware of his credibility.

Now, considering the above, can one trust the exaggerated statements of Makki?

Waqidi: Waqidi’s traditions are also not without blemishes and issues. First, he was accused of academic plagiarism, and Shafi’i stated: Waqidi’s writings are sheer lies. Muawiyah bin Saleh deemed his traditions weak, and Abdullah bin Ali Madani, quoting his father, said: Waqidi had 20,000 traditions that were never heard before.[32]

Abulhassan Madaini: It’s said that Madaini was one of the narrators influenced by the Umayyads. He sourced his information from Awanah bin Hakam (d. 158 AH), an Uthmani, who fabricated traditions for the Umayyad rulers. Furthermore, Madaini was influenced by the views of Samrah bin Habib, who was his master and undoubtedly among the adversaries of the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them.[33] He also composed verses in praise of Muawiyah.

The author of Sahih Muslim refrained from narrating Madaini’s traditions. Ibn Adi in his book (Al-Kamil) stated: Madaini’s traditions are neither strong nor reliable, and he rarely narrates traditions with a chain of transmission.[34]

The names of the wives of Imam Hassan (peace be upon him)

Now, it’s appropriate to admit in this section that the historians of that era – both Shia and Sunni – despite all the scrutiny they had, have mentioned a maximum of 18 names of Imam Hassan’s (peace be upon him) wives. They are mentioned as follows:

  1. Hafsa; daughter of Abd al-Rahman bin Abi Bakr;
  2. A woman from the Bani Thaqif tribe;
  3. Hind; daughter of Sahl bin Umar;
  4. A woman from the family of Alqama bin Zarara;
  5. A woman from the tribe of Amro bin Ibrahim Munqari;
  6. A woman from the Bani Shaiban tribe; who was divorced due to her ideological alignment with the Kharijites. [35]
  7. A woman from the Kalb tribe (Bani Kalb);
  8. Khawla; daughter of Manzur bin Ziyad Fazari;
  9. Umm Ishaq; daughter of Talha bin Ubayd Allah Taymi;
  10. Umm Bashir; daughter of Abu Mus’ud Uqba bin Umar Ansari Khazraji;
  11. Jo’da; daughter of Ash’ath bin Qays Kindi, the one who poisoned Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) and martyred him;
  12. Umm Kulthum; daughter of Fadl bin Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib;
  13. Nafila (Umm Walad) or Rumla; mother of Qasim bin Hassan (peace be upon him);
  14. Zainab; daughter of Subay’ bin Abdullah (brother of Jarir bin Abdullah);
  15. Aisha Khath’amiya; [36]
  16. Safiya (Umm Walad); [37]
  17. Shahrbano; [38]
  18. Umm Rubab; daughter of Amr al-Qays bin Adi Taym.

Indeed, it’s astonishing to acknowledge that only these eighteen names have been mentioned as the wives of Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) in history and not more! But why have the other 382 been added? The judgment is up to you!

References:

  1. Islamic Encyclopedia, Vol 7, p. 400, entry “Hassan”, Rāmans article.
  2. Hidden Truths, p. 358, quoted from Nāskh al-Tawārīkh.
  3. Al-Bidāyah wa al-Tārīkh, Balkhī, Vol 5, p. 74.
  4. Ā’lām al-Warā’, Tabarsī, Vol 1, p. 416.
  5. Irshād, Sheikh Mufīd, Vol 2, p. 20.
  6. Life of the Twelve Imams, Hashem Ma’ruf al-Husayni, Vol 1, p. 607.
  7. Biḥār al-Anwār, Majlisī, Vol 44, p. 173, Hadith 9.
  8. Al-Bidāyah wa al-Tārīkh, Vol 5, p. 74.
  9. Manāqib, Ibn Shahrāshūb, Vol 4, p. 34.
  10. Life of the Fourteen Infallibles, Emādzādeh, Vol 1, p. 552.
  11. Peace of Hassan, Sheikh Rādhī Āl Yāsīn, p. 25.
  12. Murūj al-Dhahab, Masūdī, Vol 3, p. 311, Translation Vol 2, p. 304.
  13. Biḥār al-Anwār, Vol 100, p. 220.
  14. Hidden Truths, p. 358, quoted from Nāskh al-Tawārīkh.
  15. Al-Bidāyah wa al-Tārīkh, Vol 5, p. 74.
  16. Usūl al-Kāfī, Kulaynī, Vol 4, p. 38.
  17. Life of Imam Hassan, Vol 2, p. 450, quoted from Hidden Truths, p. 340.
  18. As reported by the Islamic Republic TV.
  19. Ansāb al-Ashrāf, Balādhurī, Vol 3, p. 21.
  20. Jalā’ al-Ayūn, Majlisī, p. 271.
  21. Biḥār al-Anwār, Vol 43, p. 239.
  22. Muntahā al-Āmāl, Sheikh Abbas Qummī, p. 222.
  23. Furū’ al-Kāfī, Vol 6, p. 56, Hadith 4.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Maḥāsin Barqī, Vol 2, p. 436.
  26. Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Vol 2, p. 632.
  27. Dictionary of Hadith Scholars, Khū’ī, Vol 21, p. 25.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Biḥār al-Anwār, Vol 44, p. 169, Hadith 4.
  30. Ansāb al-Ashrāf, Vol 3, p. 25, Hadith 36.
  31. Al-Kunā wa al-Alqāb, Vol 1, p. 106; Hidden Truths, p. 352.
  32. Mīzān al-I’tidāl, Dhahabī, Vol 3, p. 655.
  33. Al-A’lam, Vol 6, p. 274; Dictionary of Hadith Scholars, Vol 17, p. 73; Hidden Truths, p. 352.
  34. Hidden Truths, p. 353.
  35. Lisān al-Mīzān, Ibn Hajar, Vol 4, p. 386; Life of the Twelve Imams, Vol 1, p. 602.
  36. Mīzān al-I’tidāl, Vol 3, p. 153; Life of the Twelve Imams, Vol 1, p. 604.
  37. Life of Imam Hassan, Vol 2, p. 260 and translation by Hajāzī, p. 669.
  38. Ibid.

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