God Almighty revealed the Noble Quran, the book of guidance, mercy, justice, and compassion, on the most blessed of nights in the month of Ramadan. Ramadan is an extremely cherished month not only because the Quran was revealed in it, but also because we are the guests of Allah in this month. In this article, verses of the Quran about the month of Ramadan and fasting will be mentioned.
- Verses About the Month of Ramadan and Fasting in Surah Baqarah
- The Quran Was Revealed on the Night of Ordainment
Verses About the Month of Ramadan and Fasting in Surah Baqarah
The most well-known verses of the Quran that talk about the month of Ramadan and the rulings of fasting are verses 183-187 of Surah Baqarah. In verse 183, Allah begins by saying that fasting is prescribed for all Muslims:
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ﴿١٨٣﴾
O You Who Believe! Fasting has been prescribed for you [as a compulsory deed] as it was prescribed for those [who lived] before you, so that you may be pious.1 (All translations of the Quran are by Foroutan)
Allah has made it obligatory for all Muslims to fast in the blessed and holy month of Ramadan. Fasting has many purposes. As the verse clearly states, fasting, which is practicing abstinence from food, drinks, sins, and sexual activity from the time of the dawn adhan to the maghrib adhan, makes our will stronger and as a result, we become increasingly pious. Fasting is not something that only Muslims were commanded to do. It was prescribed for followers of religions before Islam, including Judaism and Christianity, too. Fasting also has many health benefits such as detoxing the body, controlling blood sugar, lowering bad cholesterol, and regulating the body’s hormones.
What Should Those Who Cannot Fast in the Month of Ramadan Do?
Verse 184 of Surah Baqarah states:
أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَٰتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُۥ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُۥ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا۟ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٨٤﴾
[Fasting has been prescribed for you during] the certain number of days, but if some of you are sick or on a journey, [you should fast] the same number during other days. And those who are not able to fast should feed a poor person as an atonement, and whosoever volunteers more [and feeds more than one poor] it is better for him. Fasting is better for you if you know.2
Islam cares about those who cannot fast such as people who are sick and those on a journey. Allah has not forced such people to fast. However, if they can fast after the month of Ramadan, they should do so for the same number of days that they did not fast. Those who can never fast should pay something called kaffārah (atonement), which is an amount of money or food to help the poor.
Ramadan: The Month of the Quran’s Revelation
In verse 185 of Surah Baqarah, Allah states:
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلْقُرْءَانُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَٰتٍ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا۟ ٱلْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَىٰكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿١٨٥﴾
It is the month of Ramaḍān when the Qur’ān was sent down. [The Qur’ān] is a guidance for people, clear proof of guidance and a criterion [for mankind and jinn], and whoever remains present in the month of Ramaḍān, he should fast, and whoever is sick or on a journey, [he should fast] the same number on other days. God desires easiness not hardship for you and in order that you may complete the number of days [of fasting in Ramaḍān], and mention the greatness of God for he guided you, and that you may give thanks.3
The month of Ramadan is known as “the Spring of the Quran.” It is the month in which Allah sent down the Quran altogether to the blessed heart of His final messenger, Muhammad (s). Reciting one verse of the Quran in this month is like reciting the whole Quran in other months according to authentic narrations from the Prophet (s). Muslims try to recite the entire Quran at least once during this month by reciting one juz’ a day.
Reciting the Quran correctly and with good Tajweed is much more enjoyable and brings a great number of rewards. In this blessed month, let us all try to recite the Quran beautifully by learning Tajweed of the Quran. Islam4u offers a dedicated course on Tajweed of the Noble Quran. This course teaches Tajweed from scratch. So as long as you know how to read the Quran, you can take this course and become a master of Tajweed. Enroll now!
How Does the Quran Describe Itself?
In verse 185 of surah Baqarah, the Quran is described as:
- Guidance for people (هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ)
- A book containing clear proofs of guidance (بَيِّنَٰتٍ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ)
- A criterion for distinguishing truth from falsehood (ٱلْفُرْقَانِ)
Once again, the verse emphasizes the importance of fasting, and how it is obligatory for all Muslims to fast during the month of Ramadan. Allah states for a second time that those who are ill or on a journey and are unable to fast must fast the same number of days they could not fast after the month of Ramadan.
Allah Always Desires Ease for Us
Allah has always desired ease for us when it comes to obligatory acts. For example, if someone misses their prayer (salat), Allah has told them to make up for it some other time. If the qaḑā’ (قَضاء) of prayers and fasting, meaning compensation for them was not legislated, we would have been doomed. That is why Allah in this verse states that by not making fasting obligatory for those who cannot fast owing to valid excuses, He wants them to be at ease and not suffer hardship. This is all due to Allah’s compassion and mercy, and therefore we must thank Him.
Allah Is Very Close to Us
The next verse, meaning verse 186 of surah Baqarah states:
وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِى عَنِّى فَإِنِّى قَرِيبٌ ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ ٱلدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۖ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا۟ لِى وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا۟ بِى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ ﴿١٨٦﴾
And when My servants ask you regarding Me [they should know that], I am near and I answer the prayer of the one who prays when they pray to me, therefore, they should respond to Me and have faith in Me, in order that they may be led aright.4
Allah is very close to us. As another verse of the Quran says, He is closer to us than our jugular vein.5 So, if we ask Allah for something, if we pray to Him and ask Him to help us, guide us, protect us, grant our wishes, and do anything for us in this world and the next, He will certainly answer our prayers. This is especially true in the blessed month of Ramadan, a month in which Satan is chained and the doors of Allah’s mercy our wide open. Consequently, as the verse states, we must respond to Allah by doing everything He has told us so that we may be guided.
Intercourse Is Permitted on the Nights of Fast
The next verse states:
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَٱلْـَٰٔنَ بَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُوا۟ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَٰكِفُونَ فِى ٱلْمَسَٰجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ ﴿١٨٧﴾
You are allowed to go to your wives on the nights of the fast. They are your clothes and you are their clothes. God knew that you were betraying yourselves then relented on you and forgave you. Therefore, now you are allowed to have intercourse with your wives [on the nights of Ramaḍān]. Hence, seek whatever God prescribed for you, [and you are allowed to] eat and drink until the white thread and the black thread of the dawn become distinct to you. Then complete the fast until the night falls. Do not have intercourse with them when you are in retreat in the mosques. These are the limits that are established by God, so do not break them. Thus, God clarifies His signs to the people, that they may be pious.6
Initially, Muslims were not allowed to engage in any form of sexual activity (i.e., sexual intercourse and any activity that would result in ejaculation) in the month of Ramadan, even at night after the maghrib adhan. However, Allah went easy on Muslims and allowed them to have intercourse at night when they were allowed to eat and drink. This verse further talks about some rulings of fasting such as when one must not eat and drink, and when one can break one’s fast. This is the last verse in surah Baqarah that is about the month of Ramadan and fasting.
The Quran Was Revealed on the Night of Ordainment
There are several verses that state when the Quran was revealed. They are the first few verses of Surah Dukhan and Surah Qadr. Surah Dukhan begins by saying:
بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
حمٓ ﴿١﴾ وَٱلْكِتَٰبِ ٱلْمُبِينِ ﴿٢﴾ إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَٰهُ فِى لَيْلَةٍ مُّبَٰرَكَةٍ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ ﴿٣﴾ فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ ﴿٤﴾ أَمْرًا مِّنْ عِندِنَآ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ ﴿٥﴾ رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ ﴿٦﴾
In the Name of God, the All-Compassionate, the All-Merciful 1. Hā. Mīm. 2. By the Clarifying Book. 3. Indeed, We sent it in the blessed night. We truly are warners. 4. Every wise [and complex] matter is resolved on that [night]. 5. [The decision concerning] a matter [is issued] from Us. Indeed, We are the sender [of messengers]. 6. [All of these blessings are] a mercy from your Lord. Indeed, your Lord is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.7
These verses show that the Noble Quran was revealed on a blessed night in which every matter is decided. It is in the Night of Ordainment (Qadr) in which every matter is decided. Therefore, the Quran was revealed on one of the nights of the month of Ramadan, which is known as Laylat al-Qadr. We read in surah Qadr:
بِّسْمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَٰهُ فِى لَيْلَةِ ٱلْقَدْرِ ﴿١﴾ وَمَآ أَدْرَىٰكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ ٱلْقَدْرِ ﴿٢﴾ لَيْلَةُ ٱلْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ ﴿٣﴾ تَنَزَّلُ ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ وَٱلرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ ﴿٤﴾ سَلَٰمٌ هِىَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ ٱلْفَجْرِ ﴿٥﴾
In the Name of God, the All-Compassionate, the All-Merciful 1. Indeed, We sent it down on the Night of al-Qadr. 2. And how do you know what the Night of al-Qadr is! 3. The night of al-Qadr is better than one thousand months. 4. The angels and the Spirit descend on it with the permission of their Lord, with every command. 5. It is [the night of] peace until the break of the dawn.8
On the Night of Qadr, the whole Quran was revealed to the Prophet at once. This night is a very special night that is better than a thousand months, as the surah clearly states. It is a night in which Muslims stay awake while praying to Allah and asking Him to ordain the best of things for them until the next Laylat al-Qadr of the following year. Therefore, Muslims recite the Quran, offer prayer, and make dua on this night.
These were some verses of the Quran that were about the month of Ramadan. Allah has told us in these verses about how He revealed the Quran in this month, a book that is a source of guidance for all those who seek the truth. He has told us that we must fast in this month so that we become pious and wary of Him. In this month, Allah is very much closer to us than other months, so we must beseech Him so that He guides us. Then, in two other surahs, Allah says how He revealed the Quran on the most blessed night of the year known as Laylat al-Qadr, that is, the Night of Ordainment. Let us all purify our souls and dedicate ourselves to Allah in this blessed month of Ramadan. Reciting the Quran in the month of Ramadan has countless rewards. The Prophet has told us that reciting one verse in this month is like reciting the whole Quran in other months. He has also told us to recite the Quran beautifully and with Arabic tones and sounds.
One of the best ways of beautifying your recitation is by learning to recite the Quran with Tajweed. Islam4u is happy to offer a complete course on Tajweed of the Quran. Enroll now to beautify your recitation and receive greater rewards.
- Quran 2:183.
- Quran 2:184.
- Quran 2:185.
- Quran 2:186.
- Cf. Quran 50:16.
- Quran 2:187.
- Quran 44:1-6.
- Quran 97:1-5.