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Brutality of Bani Umayyad on the Day of Karbala

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The First Model: Thirst

The siege of Imam Hussain (PBUH) along with his companions, family, and their prevention from reaching water, which was nearby. They were denied even the women and children access to water. The siege intensified upon them three days before the murder of Imam Hussain (PBUH), as Ibn Ziyad ordered Umar ibn Sa’d to intensify the hardship on Imam Hussain (PBUH), his family, and companions, and to prevent them from getting water.[1]

The Second Model: Looting, burning and robing women

When Abu Abdullah Hussain (PBUH) was killed, the Umayyad camp attacked his tent, looted everything in it, and then set it on fire. They also stripped the daughters of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) of their coverings.

Umar ibn Sa’d approached the women, and when they saw him, they wept in his face. He prevented the soldiers from them, even though they had taken everything from the women and didn’t return anything. He assigned a group to protect the women and returned to his tent.[2]

The Third Model: Killing of Children

The killing of children such as Abdullah the infant – who was also called Ali – who was killed while in his father Hussain’s (PBUH) lap or on his arm[3]. Abdullah ibn Hasan (PBUH) was shot by Harmalah ibn Kahil while he was on Hussain’s (PBUH) chest shortly before he was killed. A man had severed the child’s hand before Harmalah shot him with an arrow and slaughtered him.[4]

There was a third child named Muhammad ibn Abi Sa’id ibn Aqeel who came out after Hussain’s (PBUH) death, terrified. A man approached him, running until he was close enough to him, and then killed him with a sword. His mother was watching him in shock.[5]

The Fourth Model: Beheading the Grandson of the Prophet

After Imam Hussain (PBUH) was overwhelmed with injuries, he fell on his face on the ground saying: “Patience on your decree, O Lord, there is no god but You, O Helper of those seeking help. I have no lord other than You, no deity but You. Patience on your rule, O Helper for those who have no helper. O Eternal One, You never end.. judge between me and them, You are the best of judges.”

The Umayyad camp then swarmed over him. Zar’ah ibn Sharik hit him on his left shoulder. Al-Haseen threw something at his throat. Another hit him on his shoulder. Sinan ibn Anas stabbed him in his collarbone and then his chest. He was shot with an arrow in his neck. Salih ibn Wahb stabbed him in his side. Then Umar ibn Sa’d shouted: “Descend upon him and put him out of his misery”. Shimr descended upon him, kicked him, sat on his chest, seized his holy beard, and hit him with a sword twelve times and severed his holy head.[6]

The Fifth Model: Despoiling dead body of Imam Hussain

After the murder of Imam Hussain (PBUH), his body was despoiled. Ishaq ibn Hawiyah took his shirt, Al-Akhnas ibn Marthad Al-Hadhrami took his turban, Al-Aswad ibn Khalid took his sandals, and his sword was taken by Jamia ibn Al-Khalq Al-Awdi, also known as Al-Aswad ibn Handhalah from Bani Tamim. Bidjil saw a ring on his finger covered in blood, so he cut off his finger and took the ring. Qays ibn Al-Ash’ath took his coat, which he used to sit on, hence he was called Qays of the coat.

His robe was taken by Ja’una ibn Hawiyah Al-Hadhrami, his bow, and arrows were taken by Ruhayl ibn Khiythamah Al-Ja’afi, Hani ibn Shibab Al-Hadhrami, and Jarir ibn Mas’ud Al-Hadhrami.”[7]

The Sixth Example: Trampling the body of Imam Hussain

After the martyrdom of Hussein (PBUH), Omar ibn Saad called out, asking for volunteers to trample Hussein’s chest and back with their horses. Ten men stepped forward and rode over Hussein’s (PBUH) body with their steeds. Led by Asaad ibn Malik, they came forth boasting:

We’ve trodden on his chest, once his back is done, with every hardened hoof that spares none.[8]

The Seventh Example: Beheading the dead bodies

Ibn Saad ordered the beheading of Imam Hussein (PBUH) and all those who stood by his side. The heads were later distributed among the tribes as tokens of loyalty to Ibn Ziyad. Subsequently, the heads were carried to Kufa and then to Sham, where Yazid bin Muawiyah resided. Imam Hussein’s (PBUH) head was prominently displayed on a spear in Kufa and similarly in Sham.[9]

The Eighth Example: Taking the Women of the prophet prisons

Imam Hussein’s (PBUH) family—his women and children—were taken captive. Among them was Imam Ali ibn Hussein Al-Sajjad (PBUH), who was ill at the time. They intended to kill him too but lady Zainab prevented it.

The captives, including the women of Prophet’s (PBUH) household, were marched from Karbala like prisoners of war.[10]

The Ninth Example: Leave the dead unburied

After Imam Hussein’s (PBUH) martyrdom, Omar ibn Saad ordered the preparation of the bodies of his own fallen men. He prayed over them and had them buried, leaving behind the pure body of Imam Hussein (PBUH) along with his companions and family, unprepared and unburied. These sacred bodies, dismembered and headless, lay in the desert of Karbala for a day or more, according to various accounts, until Allah provided those who would bury them and assist Imam Al-Sajjad (PBUH) in preparing them for their final rest.[11]

The Tenth Example: Hollowing out the head of Imam Hussain

Numerous historians have noted that when Imam Hussein’s (PBUH) head was brought to Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad, he ordered it to be hollowed out. A man named Tariq ibn Al-Mubarak undertook the gruesome task, extracting the brain and the surrounding flesh.

According to Yafei Al-Shafei in “Mirror of Jannan,” an account so horrendous it should make even the impious shudder: Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad ordered the honorable and venerated head to be hollowed out so it could be mounted on a spear. As people were reluctant to carry out this order, a man known as Tariq ibn Al-Mubarak, whose very name should be despised, stepped forward. He hollowed out the head and had it displayed at the door of the Grand Mosque. He then gave a sermon that is too disturbing to recount.”[12]

Eleventh model: Striking the teeth of Imam Hussain

When the noble head was carried to Ibn Ziyad and he was in his public assembly, the sacred head was placed before him. He began looking at it while smiling, and in his hand was a stick with which he was striking the teeth of Hussain (AS) and making fun of them.[13]

Twelfth model: Imprisonment of Imam Hussein’s family

Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad ordered the imprisonment of Imam Hussein’s family (AS), among whom was Imam Sajjad (AS), and commanded that they be confined in prison. They were imprisoned in a manner as described by Sheikh Saduq.

Then Ibn Ziyad sent to Yazid to consult him about the heads and Imam Hussain’s family (AS). The response came that they should be taken to Syria.[14]

Thirteenth model: Shacking the Family of the Prophet from Kufa to Damascus

Tabari mentioned in his history that Ubaidullah ordered the women and children of Imam Hussain (AS) to be prepared. He ordered Ali bin Husaein (AS) to be shackled by the neck and then sent them with Muhafez bin Tha’laba Al-Aidhi and with Shemr bin Dhi Al-Joshan. They traveled with them until they presented them to Yazid….[15]

Ibn Al-Sabbagh Al-Maliki said: “Ibn Ziyad put the shackles in his -Sajjad’s- hands and around his neck and they continued walking in this state until they reached Syria”.

Ibn Atham Al-Kufi stated in his book Al-Futuh: “The people moved the sanctuary of the Prophet (PBUH) from Kufa to the Levant, from city to city and from residence to residence, like the prisoners of the Turks and Daylam are moved”[16].

Fourteenth model: Taking Revenge on the prophet

When Imam Husain’s family (AS) arrived in Syria, they were stopped at the Clock Gate in front of the people’s sight. The people came out with drums and trumpets, rejoicing. Yazid was in a viewing position on Jirun, and when he saw the captives and heads on the spear points and they approached the curve of Jirun, he began to say:

When those loads appeared and those suns shone ** those suns on the hills of Jirun

The crow cawed, so I said, ‘Caw! Or don’t caw!’ ** For I have satisfied my debts from the Prophet

For these verses, as well as his simulation of Ibn Al-Zubairi’s verses, Ibn Al-Jawzi, Judge Abu Ya’la, Taftezani, and Jalal Al-Suyuti arbitrated his infidelity and curse.[17]

Fifteenth model: Tieng all the Prisons With One Rope

Before the family of Imam Hussain (AS) was brought into Yazid’s council, they came to them with ropes and tied them up. The rope was around the neck of Zein Al-Abidin (AS) to Zeinab (AS) and the rest of the daughters of the Prophet (PBUH), and whenever they slowed their walking, they were beaten until they were stopped before Yazid. When the head of Imam Hussain (PBUH) was placed before Yazid, he started poking it with a stick and was inspired by the words of Husain bin Hamam:

We have endured, and patience from us is determination ** and our swords cut down necks and wrists

We cut down the necks of honorable men ** upon us, and they were more complicated and darker

He also simulated the words of Ibn Al-Zubair:

I wish my elders in Badr had witnessed ** the Khazraj’s fear of the impact of the spear

They would have begun and inaugurated with joy ** then they would have said, ‘O Yazid, don’t give up’

We have killed the ‘Qirma’ from their leaders ** and we equaled it with Badr, so be fair

Hashem has played with the kingdom, so no ** news has come, nor has revelation descended.[18]

Sixteenth model: Crucifying the heads

Yazid ordered the head to be taken out of his council, and ordered it to be crucified on the door of the palace for three days, and ordered that Hussain’s family (AS) be imprisoned in a ruin, not protecting them from heat or cold. Indeed, we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return, and there is no power or strength except with Allah, the High, the Great.[19]

These are some examples expressing the extreme cruelty practiced by the Umayyad camp against the Ahl al-Bayt (AS). If not for the fear of lengthening, we would have mentioned many of them. We have limited ourselves to mentioning some sources, and whoever wants to authenticate what we have transmitted, the history books are at his disposal.


[1] History of Tabari – Tabari – Volume 6 / Page 234, The Complete in History – Ibn Al-Athir – Volume 4 / Page 22.

[2] The Complete in History – Ibn Al-Athir – Volume 4 / Page 32, History of Tabari – Tabari – Volume 6 / Page 260, Biographies of the Nobilities – Al-Dhahabi – Volume 3 / Page 204, The Killing of Hussein – Al-Muqarram – Page 302 and many other sources.

[3] Virtues of the Family of Abu Talib – Ibn Shahr Ashub – Volume 3 / Page 257, The Springs of Affection for the Near Relatives – Al-Qunduzi – Volume 3 / Page 78, The Battles of the Talibites – Abu Al-Faraj Al-Isfahani – Page 60.

[4] The Battles of the Talibites – Abu Al-Faraj Al-Isfahani – Page 58, Explanation of the News – Qadi Al-Nu’man Al-Maghribi – Volume 3 / Page 181, The Guidance – Sheikh Al-Mufid – Volume 2 / Page 108, Virtues of the Family of Abu Talib – Ibn Shahr Ashub – Volume 3 / Page 256, The Shrine – Muhammad Ibn Al-Mashhadi – Page 490, The Provoker of Sorrows – Ibn Nama Al-Hilli – Page 52, Iqbal Al-A’mal – Sayyid Ibn Tawus – Volume 3 / Page 75.

[5] The Guidance – Sheikh Al-Mufid – Volume 2 / Page 126, The Specialty – Sheikh Al-Mufid – Page 83, Virtues of the Family of Abu Talib – Ibn Shahr Ashub – Volume 3 / Page 259, The Worlds, Imam Hussein (AS) – Sheikh Abdullah Al-Bahrani – Page 277, The Trustworthy – Ibn Hibban – Volume 2 / Page 309.

[6] The Garden of Preachers – Al-Futal Al-Nisaburi – Page 189, Explanation of the News – Qadi Al-Nu’man Al-Maghribi – Volume 3 / Page 164, The Guidance – Sheikh Al-Mufid – Volume 2 / Page 112, Virtues of the Family of Abu Talib – Ibn Shahr Ashub – Volume 3 / Page 258, The Long News – Al-Dinawari – Page 258, History of Tabari – Tabari – Volume 4 / Page 346, The Complete in History – Ibn Al-Athir – Volume 4 / Page 78, The Beginning and The End – Ibn Kathir – Volume 8 / Page 204, The Killing of Hussein (AS) – Abu Mikhnaf Al-Azdi – Page 199, The Book of Conquests – Ahmad Ibn A’tham Al-Kufi – Volume 5 / Page 118, The Announcement of The Worlds with The Banners of Guidance – Sheikh Al-Tabarsi – Volume 1 / Page 469, The Biography of Imam Hussein (AS) – Ibn Asakir – Page 340, The Neat Pearl – Ibn Hatim Al-Amili – Page 558, The Sorrowful in The Killings of Taff – Sayyid Ibn Tawus – Page 74.

[7] The Book of Conquests – Ahmad Ibn A’tham Al-Kufi – Volume 5 / Page 120 and Volume 6 / Page 244, The History of Ya’qubi – Ya’qubi – Volume 2 / Page 244, History of Tabari – Tabari – Volume 4 / Page 346, Virtues of the Family of Abu Talib – Ibn Shahr Ashub – Volume 3 / Page 258, The Complete in History – Ibn Al-Athir – Volume 4 / Page 78, The Long News – Al-Dinawari – Page 302, The Biography of Imam Hussein (AS) – from Ibn Saad’s Classes – Page 78.

[8] The Complete in History – Ibn Al-Athir – Volume 4 / Page 80, The Garden of Preachers – Al-Futal Al-Nisaburi – Page 189, The Guidance – Sheikh Al-Mufid – Volume 2 / Page 113, History of Tabari – Tabari – Volume 4 / Page 347.

[9] Virtues of the Family of Abu Talib – Ibn Shahr Ashub – Volume 3 / Page 218, Explanation of the News – Qadi Al-Nu’man Al-Maghribi – Volume 3 / Page 252, The Collection of Additions – Al-Haythami – Volume 9 / Page 196, The Mainstay of The Reciter – Al-‘Ayni – Volume 16 / Page 241, Musnad Abu Ya’la – Abu Ya’la Al-Mawsili – Volume 5 / Page 54, The Large Dictionary – Al-Tabarani – Volume 3 / Page 125, The Superior in Strange Hadith – Jar Allah Al-Zamakhshari – Volume 1 / Page 363.

[10] The Book of Conquests – Ahmad Ibn A’tham Al-Kufi – Volume 5 / Page 120, The Sought in the Virtues of the Prophet’s Family (AS) – Muhammad Ibn Talha Al-Shafi’i – Page 403, Uncovering the Grief – Ibn Abi Al-Fath Al-Irbili – Volume 2 / Page 263, The Important Chapters in Recognizing the Imams – Ibn Al-Sabbagh – Volume 2 / Page 83.

[11] Exciter of Sorrows -Ibn Nama al-Hilli- p59, The Long News -Dinuri- p260, History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.4 / p348, The Complete History -Ibn Athir- Vol.4 / p80, The Beginning and The End -Ibn Kathir- Vol.8 / p205.

[12] Mirror of Heavens -Al-Yafei Al-Shafi’i- Vol.1 / p135, Memory of the Privileged -Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi- p233, The Death of Hussein -Khwarizmi- Vol.2 / p58-59, Explanation of Vindicating the Truth -Sayyid Al-Marashi- Vol.33 / p701.

[13] The Guidance -Sheikh Mufid- Vol.2 / p114, The High Ranks in Shia Levels -Sayyid Ali Khan Madani- p452, Informing the Worlds about The Guiding Flags -Sheikh Tabarsi- Vol.1 / p471, Mainstay of the Reader -Al-Ayni- Vol.16 / p241, History of Damascus City -Ibn Asakir- Vol.68 / p95, The Lion of the Jungle -Ibn Athir- Vol.2 / p21, History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.4 / p349, The Complete History -Ibn Athir- Vol.4 / p81, The Beginning and The End -Ibn Kathir- Vol.8 / p207, The Precious Pearl -Ibn Hatim Amili- p560, Unveiling the Grief -Ibn Abi Al-Fath Al-Irbili- Vol.2 p275.

[14] The Dictations -Sheikh Saduq- Vol.3 / p140, History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.3 / p339, The Complete History -Ibn Athir- Vol.3 / p298.

[15] History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.3 / p338.

[16] [16] History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.3 / p338, The Important Chapters -Ibn Al-Sabbagh Al-Maliki- p193, The Book of Victories -Ahmad Ibn A’tham Al-Kufi- Vol.5 / p147, Sorrow for The Massacred -Sayyid Ibn Tawus- p208, The Complete History -Ibn Athir- Vol.4 / p34, The Beginning and The End -Ibn Kathir- Vol.8 / p191.

 

[18] Explanation of the News -Judge Nu’man Al-Maghribi- Vol.3 / p158, History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.8 / p188, Eloquent Women -Ibn Tayfur- p21, The Book of Victories -Ahmad Ibn A’tham Al-Kufi- Vol.5 / p129, The Guided -Muhammad Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari (Shiite)- p511, The Argument -Sheikh Tabarsi- Vol.2 / p34, The Unusual and The Wounds -Qutb al-Din Al-Rawandi- Vol.2 / p580, The Virtues of Abu Talib’s Family -Ibn Shahr Ashub- Vol.3 / p261.

[19] History of Tabari -Tabari- Vol.6 / p267, The Complete History -Ibn Athir- Vol.4 / p35, Memory of the Privileged -Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi- p148, The Burning Meteors -Ibn Hajar- p116, The Branches -Ibn Mufleh Al-Hanbali in Hanbali Jurisprudence- Vol.3 / p549, The Collective of Additions -Ibn Hajar- Vol.9 / p195, The Important Chapters -Ibn Al-Sabbagh- p205, The Beginning and The End -Ibn Kathir- Vol.8 / p192, Explanation of Hariri’s Maqamat -Al-Sharishi Vol.1 / p193.

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