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Imam Ali in the Quran

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What is presented in this article is an answer to the question: If the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (peace be upon him), is presented as an infallible Imam and the immediate successor of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), why is there no direct reference to this in the Quranic verses?!

Intro

What you have before you is a selection of verses from the Holy Quran compiled to clarify some ambiguities surrounding the guardianship (Wilayah) of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and the virtues of the other members of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them). In this article, we have attempted to provide a brief and necessary explanation and also mention some sources from both Shia and Sunni traditions to point out their views regarding the mentioned verses.

The Principle of Imamate

In the Shia school of thought, “Imamate” is considered one of the fundamental principles of religion, deemed necessary for the preservation and oversight of the implementation of divine law. Extensive knowledge, infallibility, and immunity from sin and error are among the special conditions for an Imam (peace be upon him), and identifying such an individual is only possible through revelation. Thus, Shias believe that “Imamate” is a divine position and its appointment must be made by Almighty God, making the issue of Imamate a foundational religious principle (rather than a secondary matter) for Shias. This issue is also a major point of difference between Shia and Sunni Muslims; Shia Muslims believe that the position of Imamate is given by God to deserving individuals in such a way that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his eleven sons are the successors of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) one after another. However, according to Sunni belief, the appointment of an Imam is left to the people and is conducted through a “public consensus.”

The Imamate of the Infallibles (peace be upon them) has been repeatedly and extensively mentioned by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Regarding the Imamate of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), one can refer to the famous event of Ghadir Khumm, which took place by the command of God and the revelation of the noble verse “O Messenger, deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not delivered His message. And Allah will protect you from the people”[1]. Numerous interpretations from both Shia and Sunni scholars under this verse refer to the Hadith of Ghadir Khumm and the statement of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), who said, “For whomsoever I am his master, Ali is his master.”[2]. In the same event of Ghadir, Umar ibn al-Khattab, while pledging allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) for congratulations, said: “Well done, well done to you, O Ali, you have become my master and the master of every male and female believer.”[3].

Also, there is a narration that came after the revelation of the noble verse “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you”[4]. Jabir ibn Abdullah Ansari asked the Messenger of God (peace be upon him) about the interpretation of “those in authority”, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned Ali (peace be upon him) and his eleven sons, thereby referring to the Imamate of the other Imams as well[5]. And a statement he often made to Ali (peace be upon him) that “You are the guardian of every believer after me”[6] and a narration where he said: “Whoever I am his master, then Ali is his master.”[7]

Regarding the matter of guardianship

Abu Bakr and Umar asked the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), who referred to the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) and his sons, and not to the son of Imam Husayn (peace be upon him), saying: “Ali is with the Qur’an, and the Qur’an is with Ali. They will not separate until they return to me at the pond”[8].

In this regard, one can refer to the narrations concerning the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) introduced by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), which also include Imam Ali (peace be upon him). The Prophet in some instances said: “Indeed, the example of my family among you is like the ark of Noah; whoever boarded it was saved, and whoever stayed behind was drowned”[9]. And the famous narrative of “the door of repentance” likening the Ahl al-Bayt to the door of repentance in the children of Israel, stating: “Whoever enters it, is forgiven.”[10]

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) on many occasions indicated the succession of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him). On the day of Ghadir, during the day of Arafah in the Farewell Pilgrimage, once again on his pulpit in Medina, and in many other narrations that there is not the opportunity to mention in this article.

What is presented in this article is an answer to the question: If the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (peace be upon him), is presented as an infallible Imam and the immediate successor of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), why is there no direct reference to this in the Quranic verses?!

Of course, those who have a superficial acquaintance with the principles and beliefs of the Islamic religion will realize the weakness of this doubt. However, to answer this question, we refer to verses that have also been confirmed by Sunni scholars and mentioned in their reliable sources, and in their interpretations, they refer to the narratives from the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) about the Imamate and guardianship of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (peace be upon him), essentially indicating the immediate Imamate of Ali (peace be upon him).

Imam Ali in the Verses

From the entirety of the Quranic verses, those specifically pertaining to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) can be divided into two categories; verses about specific Imamate and verses about virtues.

Among the Quranic verses regarding the specific Imamate, these five instances can be mentioned: the verse of Announcement (Al-Ma’idah/67), the verse of Guardianship (Al-Ma’idah/55), the verse of Those in Authority (An-Nisa’/59), the verse of the Truthful (At-Tawbah/119), and the verse of Kinship (Ash-Shura/23).

Another part of the verses refers to the virtues of His Holiness and, as a result, introduces him as the best of the Muhammadan Ummah (peace be upon him) and the most eminent personality after the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him); hence, no one is more worthy than him for leadership of the Ummah after the Prophet (peace be upon him).

The following verses can be mentioned regarding the virtues: the verse of Mubahala (Al-‘Imran/61), the verse of the Best of Creation (Al-Bayyina/7 and 8), the verse of the Night of Stay (Al-Baqarah/207), the verse of Wisdom (Al-Baqarah/269), the verses of the chapter Hal Ata… (Al-Insan, from the first to the last verse), the beginning verses of the chapter Bara’ah (At-Tawbah), the verse of Giving Drink to Pilgrims (At-Tawbah/19), the verse of the Righteous among Believers (At-Tahrim/4), the verse of Ministry (Ta-Ha/29 to 32), the verses of the chapter Al-Ahzab (verse 33 and 25), the verse of Clear Evidence and Witness (Hud/17), the verse of the Truthful (Al-Hadid/19), the verse of Light (Al-Hadid/27), the verse of Warning (Ash-Shu’ara/214 and 215), the verse of the Meeting of the Two Seas (Ar-Rahman/19 to 21), the verse of Secret Consultation (Al-Mujadila/12 and 13), the verse of the Foremost (Al-Waqi’a/10 to 14), the verse of the Great News (Al-Haqqah/12), the verse of Affection (Maryam/96), the verse of the Hypocrites (Muhammad/30), the verse of Annoyance (Al-Ahzab/57), the verse of Spending (Al-Baqarah/274), the verse of Love (Al-Ma’idah/54), and the verse of Being Questioned (As-Saffat/24), and more…

His Eminence Imam Khomeini (may God bless his soul) in the esteemed book “Kashf al-Asrar,” citing “Ghayat al-Maram,” mentions that up to 140 verses have been revealed regarding Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his Imamate. He detailedly mentions the verses that are unanimously agreed upon by Shia and Sunni scholars and examines more than ten of them[11]. In the book “The Message of the Quran” (Vol. 9) also, around 30 verses have been discussed in this regard. Allama Amini (may God bless his soul) also refers to some of the verses in the esteemed book Al-Ghadir. Nonetheless, here among the mentioned collection of verses, we refer to the five verses of specific Imamate and also a few verses regarding the virtues of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him)[12]. It is hoped that those interested in further research and detail regarding this topic will refer to the authoritative books of beliefs and interpretations of Shia and Sunni.

1. Verse of Proclamation

“O Messenger, deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people” (Al-Ma’idah/67).

This verse is among the explicit ones that, according to the consensus of interpreters, was revealed concerning the matter of the guardianship (Wilayah) of Ali (peace be upon him) on the day of Ghadir. The reason for the revelation of the verse is reported as the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) fear of mentioning the Imamate of Ali (peace be upon him) and appointing a specific person for the divine position of Imamate, lest it intensifies disputes among Muslims and potentially endangers Islam itself. Various interpretations under this verse refer to the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) concern about the guardianship and consider its revelation in honor of Imam Ali (peace be upon him). Sulayman Qanduzi in Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, Fakhr Razi in his Tafsir, and Alusi in Ruh al-Ma’ani have mentioned this topic[13]. With the revelation of this verse, proclaiming the Imamate became obligatory for the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), and God also promised to protect him from the plots of the hypocrites.

2. Verse of Completing the Religion

“Today, I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion” (Al-Ma’idah/3).

In most interpretations and some Sunni sources like Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah and Tafsir al-Fakhr Razi, it is mentioned that this verse was revealed after the proclamation of the message and the event of Ghadir[14]. Some believe that this verse is the last one revealed to the Prophet.

3. Verse of Guardianship

“Indeed, your ally is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, those who establish prayer and give zakah, and they bow [in worship]” (Al-Ma’idah/55).

All interpreters agree that this verse was revealed about Imam Ali (peace be upon him) at the moment he gave charity while in the state of bowing in prayer. Among those who have acknowledged this verse in honor of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) are Sheikh Sulayman Qanduzi, Zamakhshari, Tabari, Fakhr Razi, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, and others[15]. Imam Khomeini (may God bless his soul) states: “Twenty-four hadiths from Sunni sources have been narrated indicating that this verse refers to Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him).”[16]

Multiple narrations concerning this verse emphasize the concept of “Wali” and introduce Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as the Muslims’ guardian after the Prophet (peace be upon him).

4. Verse of Those in Authority

“O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you” (An-Nisa’/59).

Hakim Haskani, a well-known interpreter, has quoted five hadiths under this verse, all of which identify those in authority as Imam Ali (peace be upon him). According to the consensus of interpreters, those in authority refer to the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) household[17]. We have also mentioned a narration in this regard.

5. Verse of the People of Remembrance

“And We sent not before you except men to whom We revealed [the message], so ask the people of the message if you do not know” (An-Nahl/43).

Imam Khomeini (may his soul be blessed) cites from Ghayat al-Maram that three hadiths from Sunni sources indicate that the “people of remembrance” refer to Imam Ali (peace be upon him)[18].

Some Sunni sources, such as Tafsir Qurtubi and Tabari, have interpreted the “people of remembrance” as referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)[19].

6. Verse of the Truthful

“O you who have believed, fear Allah and be with those who are true” (At-Tawbah/119).

According to numerous narrations regarding this verse, its revelation is attributed to Ali (peace be upon him) or all members of the Ahl al-Bayt, as some Sunni figures like Sulayman Qanduzi and Hakim Haskani have also indicated[20]. Imam Khomeini (may his soul be blessed), quoting from Ghayat al-Maram, writes that seven hadiths from Sunni sources suggest that “being with the truthful” refers to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Imams of his household (peace be upon them), including Imam Ali (peace be upon him)[21]. Some Sunni commentators, such as Khwarizmi, Abdullah Shafi’i, and Hakim Haskani, have also interpreted “with the truthful” specifically as “with Ali ibn Abi Talib.”[22]

7. Verse of the Night of the Stay

“And of the people is he who sells himself seeking the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is kind to [His] servants” (Al-Baqarah/207).

This verse was revealed concerning the Night of Stay and is mentioned in the interpretations of Shia scholars as well as Sunni books, including Tafsir Fakhr Razi, Mustadrak al-Sahihain, Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, Shawahid al-Tanzil, and Sharh Nahj al-Balagha by Ibn Abi al-Hadid, indicating that “of the people” refers to Imam Ali (peace be upon him), who risked his life for the pleasure of God. The context is the event of Imam Ali sleeping in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) bed.[23] This event is detailed in various interpretations. Hakim Nishapuri in Mustadrak al-Sahihain states, “This is a reliable hadith, although Muslim and Bukhari have not included it in their collections.”[24]

8. Verse of Unity

“O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him]. And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided” (Al-Imran/102).

Ghayat al-Maram, citing four hadiths from Sunni sources, mentions that “the rope of Allah” refers to the Commander of the Faithful (Ali) (peace be upon him)[25].  Other sources, such as Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani and Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, also affirm this interpretation.[26]

9. Verse of Mubahala

“So whoever argues with you about it after [this] knowledge has come to you – say, ‘Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars'” (Al-Imran/61).

This verse, known as the “Verse of Mubahala,” is unanimously considered by commentators and hadith scholars. According to some commentators such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Suyuti, Tabari, and Hakim Nishapuri, “our sons” refers to Hasan and Husayn, “our women” to Fatimah al-Zahra (peace be upon her), and “ourselves” to the Commander of the Faithful (Ali) (peace be upon him) due to the utmost love and affection of the Messenger of God (peace be upon him) towards him. It’s illogical to consider “ourselves” to refer to the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) own self, as it makes more sense in context for the invitation to involve another, which in this case, is meant to be the Commander of the Faithful (Ali) (peace be upon him).[27]

10. Verse of the Best of Creation

“Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds – they are the best of creatures” (Al-Bayyina/7).

This verse declares believers who have found the path of truth through faith and are the source of righteous deeds as the “best of creation.”

While the concept of the best of creation may seem to apply broadly and not be limited to any specific person or people, in Sunni sources such as Shawahid al-Tanzil, Ad-Durr al-Manthur, Noor al-Absar, and Ihqaq al-Haq, numerous narrations from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) consider Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his Shia as possessing the quality of being the best of creation, and cite this quality as one of the best proofs of Ali’s (peace be upon him) superiority and his right to Imamate over all Muslims.[28] It can be concluded that preferring someone less superior over someone more superior is undesirable, and therefore, the first successor to the Prophet (peace be upon him) should be the Commander of the Faithful (Ali) (peace be upon him).

11. Verse of the Righteous among Believers

“If you two [wives of the Prophet] turn in repentance to Allah, [it is best], for your hearts have deviated; but if you cooperate against him, then indeed Allah is his protector, and Gabriel and the righteous of the believers and the angels, moreover, are [his] assistants” (At-Tahrim/4).

The term “righteous of the believers” is stated in a general sense, encompassing all virtuous, faithful, and upright individuals across all eras after the advent of Islam. However, in numerous traditions, “the righteous of the believers” has been interpreted specifically as referring to Imam Ali (peace be upon him). It has been repeatedly narrated from the Prophet (peace be upon him) that “the righteous of the believers” is Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him). This interpretation is found in Shia sources (such as Al-Ghadir, Tafsir al-Mizan, Tafsir Nemooneh, and other interpretations) as well as in Sunni sources (such as Shawahid al-Tanzil and Ruh al-Bayan) have repeatedly mentioned these kinds of narrations.[29]

12. Verse of Purification

“Indeed, Allah intends to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification” (Al-Ahzab/33).

Here, the intention refers to a definitive divine will that cannot be averted. Moreover, more than seventy narrations from Sunni sources identify the Ahl al-Bayt as the Five Pure Ones, which can include narrations from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Hakim Nishapuri, and Tirmidhi.[30]

Shia scholars cite this verse as one of the proofs of the infallibility of the Imams (peace be upon them). For further interpretation and explanation, one can refer to authoritative books on beliefs, finding that this interpretation of the verse is agreed upon by all Shia and Sunni commentators.

13. Verse of Affection

“Say, [O Muhammad], ‘I do not ask you for this message any reward [but] only affection for [my] relatives'” (Ash-Shura/23).

This verse pertains to the virtue that God has given to the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them). The majority of Sunni commentators (such as Hakim Haskani Hanafi, Hakim Nishapuri, Khwarizmi, Zamakhshari, Fakhr Razi, Suyuti, and Tabari) believe that “affection in [the] kinship” refers to the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) close relatives, including Imam Ali (peace be upon him).[31]

14. Verse of the Straight Path

“And this is My path, which is straight, so follow it; and do not follow [other] ways, for you will be separated from His way. This He has instructed you that you may become righteous” (Al-An’am/153).

In this verse, “the path of Allah” and “the way of God” are interpreted as referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), as explicitly stated in various Shia and Sunni interpretations.[32]

15. Verse of the Guides

“Indeed, you are only a warner, and for every people is a guide” (Ar-Ra’d/7).

In Sunni interpretations, “guides to God” have been interpreted as referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them).[33]

16. Verse of Blessing

“Then you will surely be asked that Day about pleasure” (At-Takathur/8).

According to a narration from Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him), the “blessing” referred to on the Day of Judgment, which has been interpreted in interpretations as the Wilayah (guardianship) of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), will be questioned. This interpretation is agreed upon by the majority of Sunni scholars as well, as cited in Shawahid al-Tanzil and Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah.[34]

17. Surah Al-Insan

“…and they feed the food despite their love for it to the needy, the orphan, and the captive…” (Al-Insan/5-22).

Some Sunni commentators, such as Sheikh Sulayman Qanduzi in Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, Khwarizmi in Manaqib, Qurtubi in his Tafsir, Fakhr Razi in his Tafsir, Zamakhshari in Al-Kashshaf, and Ibn Abi al-Hadid in Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, believe that the revelation of these verses and indeed the entire Surah Al-Insan (The Man) pertains to the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) and their adversaries.[35]

Most interpretations refer to the act of charity by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and Fatimah (peace be upon her), who for three consecutive days gave their iftar to a needy person, an orphan, and a captive while fasting themselves; on the fourth day, Gabriel told the Prophet from God: “O Muhammad! Take this Surah; God congratulates you for having such a household,” and then recited Surah Al-Insan to the Prophet (peace be upon him). This narration, transmitted by Ibn Abbas, is mentioned in most interpretations.[36]

As mentioned at the beginning of this text, other verses also related to the matter of guardianship and the virtues of Commander of the Faithful Ali (peace be upon him) have been revealed, as explicitly mentioned in various Shia and Sunni interpretations[37]. It is hoped that this brief presentation will serve as a starting point for further in-depth analysis and interpretation of the verses related to the Imamate and guardianship of the family of revelation, pleasing to the Lord of the Age (may God hasten his return), insha’Allah.


[1] Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread) / 67.

[2] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 109 and 533; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 32; Manaqib Khwarazmi, p. 93.

[3] See: Abqari’ al-Anwar; Al-Ghadir.

[4] An-Nisa’ (The Women) / 59.

[5] Ghayat al-Maram, Vol. 10, p. 267; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 494; Ithbat al-Huda, Vol. 3, p. 123.

[6] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 111 and 134; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 331 and Vol. 4, p. 438.

[7] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 132; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 34; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 5, p. 25; Manaqib Khwarazmi, p. 72.

[8] Ghayat al-Maram, Vol. 4, Chapter 58; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 285.

[9] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 151; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 28 and 298.

[10] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 28 and 298; Majma’ al-Zawa’id, Vol. 2, p. 22; Arba’in, Vol. 25, p. 216.

[11]Kashf al-Asrar up to page 140.

[12] Tafsir al-Mizan; Tafsir Nemooneh; Al-Ghadir; The Message of the Quran.

[13] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 120; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 3, p. 636; Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani, Vol. 6, p. 172.

[14] See: Al-Ghadir, Vol. 1, p. 214; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 120; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 12, p. 50.

[15] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 115; Tafsir al-Kashshaf by Zamakhshari, Vol. 1, p. 624; Tafsir al-Tabari, Vol. 6, pp. 288-289; Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 6, pp. 219-220; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 12, pp. 20, 26; Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 13, p. 277.

[16] Kashf al-Asrar, quoting from Ghayat al-Maram.

[17] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 114 and 119; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 3, p. 357.

[18] See: Kashf al-Asrar, pages 100 onwards.

[19] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 46 and 119; Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 11, p. 272; Tafsir al-Tabari, Vol. 12, p. 109.

[20] Al-Ghadir, Vol. 2, p. 277; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 115; Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, p. 262.

[21] Kashf al-Asrar, p. 139; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 116; Manaqib Khwarazmi, p. 198; Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani, Vol. 11, p. 41.

[22] Manaqib Khwarazmi, p. 189; Manaqib Abdullah Shafi’i, p. 154; Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, p. 259.

[23] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 4; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 92; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 5, p. 213; Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 13, p. 262; Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, pp. 96, 100, 196, etc. For more details, see: Al-Ghadir, Vol. 2, p. 48 onwards.

[24] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 4.

[25] Quoted from Kashf al-Asrar, p. 130 onwards.

[26] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 119, 274, and 297; Ruh al-Ma’ani, Vol. 4, p. 16.

[27] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 150; Sahih Muslim, Vol. 15, p. 176; Sahih al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, p. 293 and Vol. 5, pp. 225, 638; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 185; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 8, p. 85; Tafsir al-Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 192.

[28] Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 2, pp. 357, 359, 364; Ad-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 6, p. 379; As-Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, p. 96; Noor al-Absar, pp. 70, 101; Ihqaq al-Haq, Vol. 3, p. 288.

[29] Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 2, pp. 255-263; Ruh al-Bayan, Vol. 10, p. 53.

[30] Ghayat al-Maram, Vol. 6, pp. 287, 293; Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, pp. 133, 146, 147, 158; Sahih al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2, pp. 209, 308, 319; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 330.

[31] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 172; Tafsir al-Tabari, Vol. 25, pp. 16, 25; Tafsir Zamakhshari, Vol. 3, p. 402; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 27, pp. 165, 166; Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 2, pp. 130-135, 141; Ad-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 6, p. 7; Manaqib Khwarazmi, p. 307.

[32] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 111.

[33] Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 129; Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 99, 104; Tafsir al-Tabari, Vol. 13, p. 108; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 5, p. 271.

[34] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 111; Shawahid al-Tanzil, Vol. 2, p. 368.

[35] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, pp. 93, 212; Manaqib Khwarazmi, pp. 188, 194; Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 19, p. 130; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 13, p. 243; Tafsir al-Kashshaf, Vol. 4, p. 194; Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 13, p. 276.

[36] Tafsir al-Kashshaf, Vol. 4, p. 670; Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 10, p. 6922; Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, Vol. 3, p. 242.

[37] For further information, see: afsir al-Mizan; Nemooneh; The Message of the Quran, Vol. 9.

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