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The Virtues of Imam Ali (AS), in Sunni Sources

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Sunnis have many commonalities with Shi’ites, and these commonalities, in addition to doctrinal issues, are seen in historical narratives, including about the character and biography of Imam Ali (AS). Therefore, exploring credible Sunni sources and extracting and expressing what is recorded about the first Imam of the Shi’ites in these sources is an important and effective step in strengthening the unity of the Muslim Ummah. This scholarly effort can also lift the veil on some ambiguities that have arisen and continue to arise due to neglect of first-hand Sunni sources, and reveal the status and esteem that Ali ibn Abi Talib held in the eyes of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and his companions. Thus, what we read in this article are descriptions of Imam Ali (AS) that are all taken from Sunni sources and presented in several key points.

Born in the Kaaba

The name of Imam Ali’s (AS) father is Abu Talib, also known as Abd Manaf. His mother, Fatimah bint Asad, was the first Hashemite woman to give birth to a Hashemite child[1]. Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) was born on the 13th of Rajab[2] in the year 30 Am al-Fil[3] inside the House of God, the Kaaba[4].

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The First Man to Embrace Islam

After the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was commissioned to prophethood, Ali (AS), at the age of ten[5], was the first man to accept Islam[6] and prayed with the Prophet (PBUH)[7]. It is narrated from Jabir that the Prophet (PBUH) was commissioned on a Monday and Ali (AS) prayed with him on a Tuesday[8].

Ali (AS) himself said, “I prayed with the Prophet seven years before the people did.”[9]

Ibn Abbas counted this as one of the distinctions that no one else shared with Imam Ali (AS). He said, “Among Arabs and non-Arabs, Ali (AS) was the first to pray with the Prophet. He held the flag of the Prophet’s army in all the battles. On the day when everyone fled (the Battle of Uhud), he stayed and defended the Prophet (PBUH). He was the one who washed the body of the Prophet (PBUH) and laid him in his grave.”[10]

Son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

The distinguished position of the noble Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and the lofty character of Lady Fatimah (AS) led many notable individuals to aspire to become the Prophet’s son-in-law, but by divine command[11], the Prophet (PBUH) married his daughter to Imam Ali (AS) in the month of Ramadan in the second year of Hijra[12].

Ali (AS) in the Quran

In the books of Sunni Islam, several verses of the Holy Quran are understood to pertain specifically to the Ahlul Bayt generally or to Imam Ali (AS) specifically. Here are a few examples:

A. The Verse of Purification

God says in verse 33 of Surah Al-Ahzab, “God only desires to remove from you the impurity, O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.”[13]

Some Sunni scholars interpret this verse concerning the people of the cloak, i.e., Muhammad (PBUH), Ali (AS), Fatimah (AS), Hasan (AS), and Husayn (AS), who are all from the Prophet’s household.

Ibn Athir al-Jazari in the book “Asad al-Ghaba” states:

“After the revelation of the purification verse, the Noble Prophet (PBUH), who was at the house of Umm Salamah, called Ali (AS), Fatimah (AS), and the two Hasan (AS) near him, covered them with his cloak and said, ‘These are my household members, remove impurity from them and purify them thoroughly.’ Umm Salamah asked, ‘O Messenger of God! Am I also with them?’ The Prophet replied, ‘Stay in your place; you are on good.’[14]

B. The Verse ‘Hal Ata’

Verse 8 of Surah Al-Insan states, ‘And they feed, despite their own desire, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,’[15]

In the context of the revelation of this verse, it is narrated that Hasan (AS) and Husayn (AS) fell ill, and Imam Ali (AS) and Fatimah (AS) vowed that if Hasan (AS) and Husayn (AS) recovered, they would fast for three days. After their recovery, they all fasted together, but each of the three days, they gave their Iftar food to needy people who asked them for help.

C. The Verse of Affection

Verse 23 of Surah Ash-Shura states, ‘Say, I do not ask you for this message any reward but love for relatives; and whoever earns good, we increase him in good thereby; indeed, God is Forgiving and Appreciative.’[16]

D. The Verse of Mubahala

Verse 61 of Surah Al-Imran reads, ‘Say, “Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly together and invoke the curse of God upon the liars.’[17]

Although some Sunni authors have attempted to expand the interpretation of some verses related to the virtues of the Ahlul Bayt to include others, none has been able to alter the Verse of Mubahala to include other individuals among the Ahlul Bayt. It is universally acknowledged that in this event, only the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Imam Ali (AS) as “ourselves,” Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husayn (AS) as “our sons,” and Fatimah Zahra (AS) as “our women” participated. The term ‘our women,’ although it could have provided a pretext for including some of the Prophet’s wives, has not been used in this way, and all recognized Sunni authors agree that in this verse, ‘our women’ refers only to Fatimah Zahra (AS).

Ali (AS) in Hadiths

A. The Hadith of Ghadir

With the revelation of verse 67 of Surah Al-Ma’idah in the last days of the life of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), he was commanded to deliver an important message to the people: “O Messenger, proclaim the (message) which has been sent to you from your Lord.”[18]

This important message was conveyed on the last Hajj of the Prophet (PBUH), known as Hajjat al-Wada, on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah. As the pilgrims were returning, when they reached the area of Ghadir Khumm, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered the caravans to stop[19]. After praising and glorifying God and delivering a sermon, he asked the people, “O people, who is your master and guardian?”

After the people replied, “God and His Messenger,” the Prophet (PBUH), while standing on a platform made from camel saddles, raised Ali’s (AS) hand[20] and said: “For whoever I am his master, Ali is his master. O God, befriend those who befriend him, and be the enemy of his enemy.”[21]

After these words and the announcement of Ali’s (AS) succession, those present at Ghadir went to congratulate Ali (AS), with Omar and Abu Bakr being among the first to acknowledge his position[22].

This event in Islamic history is so prominent and undeniable that Imam Ali (AS) later, sometimes to prove his legitimacy, would refer to it; for instance, in Ruhba in Kufa, he asked who among the people had witnessed the Prophet’s (PBUH) declaration regarding his leadership and succession on the day of Ghadir. Subsequently, thirteen of the Companions stood up and testified that the Prophet (PBUH) had said: “For whoever I am his master, Ali is his master.”[23]

B. The Hadith of Manzilah (Status)

Imam Ali (AS) was present with the Prophet (PBUH) in all battles except the Battle of Tabuk, where the Prophet appointed him as his deputy in Medina. When Ali (AS) asked why he should not join him in this battle, the Prophet (PBUH) said: “Are you not content to be to me as Aaron was to Moses, except that there is no prophet after me?”[24]

C. The Hadith of Brotherhood

After the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) migrated from Mecca, Ali (AS) stayed behind for three days to return the trusts of the people that were with the Prophet (PBUH), and then he headed to Medina[25]. Upon learning that the Prophet (PBUH) had established bonds of brotherhood between the Migrants and the Helpers, Ali (AS) asked why a brother was not chosen for him. The Prophet replied, “You are my brother in this world and the hereafter.”[26] Thus, the Prophet (PBUH) chose Ali (AS) as his own brother.

D. The Hadith of the Standard

During the conquest of the fort of Khaybar, after some companions failed to achieve victory, the Prophet (PBUH) said: “Tomorrow, I will give the flag to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, and whom Allah and His Messenger love. He is not a deserter; Allah will grant victory through him.”[27]

After this declaration by the Prophet (PBUH), everyone hoped to be the one to receive the flag, but on the promised day, the Prophet (PBUH) handed it to Ali (AS)[28].

E. The Hadith of Private Conversation

Some companions were excessively engaging in private conversations with the Prophet (PBUH), causing him discomfort. Reluctant to reprimand them, a verse was revealed (Verse 5 of Surah Al-Mujadila), mandating that anyone who wished to speak privately with the Prophet (PBUH) should first give charity. This thinned the crowd around the Prophet. During this period, only Ali (AS) continued speaking with the Prophet (PBUH) after giving charity, though this requirement was later abrogated[29].

F. The Hadith of Closing Doors The Prophet (PBUH) ordered that all doors opening towards the mosque be closed, except for the door of Ali’s (AS) house[30]. When some companions protested, he responded, “I did not open Ali’s door; rather, God did.”[31]

G. The Hadith of the Cloak

On a day when the Prophet (PBUH) was in the house of Umm Salamah, he called Ali (AS), Fatimah (AS), Hasan (AS), and Husayn (AS) under a cloak and said, “O Allah, these are my household and my special ones. O Allah, remove impurity from them and purify them thoroughly.” In response to Umm Salamah’s inquiry whether she was also included among the household, he said, “You are towards goodness.”[32]

Baladhuri in “Ansab al-Ashraf” relates that Zaid bin Ali bin Husayn (AS) was asked whether Ali or Jafar was superior. Zaid said, “Jafar, who has two wings in paradise and is the closest in appearance and character to the Prophet (PBUH), although he is not among the people of the cloak.”[33]

Merits and Characteristics

The virtues and merits of Ali (AS) mentioned in Sunni sources are numerous, and here we only mention a few examples:

A. Asceticism and Piety

Ammar has narrated that he heard the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) tell Ali (AS), “O Ali! God has adorned you with something He has not adorned any of His servants with, something more beloved than any adornment, and that is asceticism in this world.”[34]

Although Ali (AS) could have lived a life of comfort from the income of the palm groves he had established, he chose a life of asceticism. Muhammad bin Ka’ab al-Qurazi narrates that he heard Ali (AS) say, “I have tied stones to my stomach due to hunger, while I have given away forty thousand dinars in charity.”[35]

B. The Knowledge of the Imam

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said about Imam Ali’s (AS) knowledge, “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate; whoever wants knowledge, let him enter through its gate.”[36]

Ali (AS) was never afraid of being questioned and often encouraged everyone to ask him whatever they wanted. Sa’id bin Musayyib says, “Other than Ali bin Abi Talib (AS), no one says ‘Ask me’ (anything you want to know).”[37] Ibn Abbas also states, “When Ali (AS) proved something to us, we would not need to consult anyone else.”[38]

The Imam himself spoke about the extent of his knowledge: “The Messenger of God (PBUH) taught me a thousand gates of knowledge, each of which opens to another thousand gates.”[39]

C. Judgment

Ali (AS) was also unparalleled in judgment, to the extent that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said about him, “The best among you in judgment is Ali bin Abi Talib (AS).”[40]

Regarding this, the Imam himself said:

When the Prophet (PBUH) wanted to send me to Yemen, I said, ‘You are sending me to Yemen, and they will ask me to judge among them, but I do not know how to judge.’ The Prophet (PBUH) placed his hand on my chest and prayed, ‘O Allah, steady his tongue and guide his heart.’ After that, I never doubted in my judgments.”[41]

D. Courage

The courage of Imam Ali (AS) is so well-known and evident that it needs no explanation or description[42]. He was the bravest of people, acknowledged by all Arabs[43]. He had a strong, muscular, and well-formed body[44]. He participated in all the battles of the Prophet (PBUH), except the Battle of Tabuk where he stayed behind in Medina as the Prophet’s deputy, demonstrating his bravery on these battlefields[45].

The Battle of Uhud

In this battle, after many Companions had scattered and fled the field, Ali (AS) stood firmly and defended the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) until Gabriel came down and acknowledged his action as ‘comradeship.’ The Prophet (PBUH) also said, “Ali is from me and I am from Ali.” Gabriel added, “And I am from you too, O Messenger of Allah!”[46] It was in this same battle, after the acts of courage and sacrifice by Ali (AS), that a voice was heard from the heavens proclaiming, “There is no sword except Zulfiqar; there is no youth except Ali.”[47]

The Battle of Khandaq

In the Battle of Khandaq, Imam Ali (AS) demonstrated indescribable bravery, which demoralized the polytheists and bolstered the morale of the Muslim army. To defend the city of Medina, the Muslims dug a trench that successfully prevented the enemy’s advance. However, several of the enemy’s formidable warriors, including Amr ibn Abd Wudd, managed to cross the trench and faced the Muslims. Amr called out for a duel three times, and each time, no one except Ali (AS) stepped forward to face him, ultimately doing so with the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) permission. Amr said, “I do not wish to kill you,” but Ali (AS) replied, “By God! I indeed wish to kill you.” With these words, Amr dismounted his horse and engaged in combat with Ali (AS). After some time, Ali (AS) struck Amr a fatal blow, leading to his death. Amr’s death instilled fear in his companions who had crossed the trench, causing them to flee. Thus, Ali (AS) played a crucial role in the Muslim victory at the Battle of Khandaq by killing a champion like Amr[48].

The Battle of Khaybar

In the Battle of Khaybar, Ali (AS) held the flag of the Muslim army. As the army approached the fortress, the Jews charged at Ali (AS), and one of them managed to knock his shield from his hand. At that moment, Ali (AS) uprooted the gate of the fortress and used it as his shield, continuing to fight until the Muslims emerged victorious. When Ali (AS) eventually threw down the gate, several men tried to move it but were unable to do so[49]. In this battle, Ali (AS) also killed Marhab, the renowned Jewish champion of Khaybar, playing a key role in the Muslim victory[50].

The Night of Al-Mabit

The Night of Al-Mabit refers to the night when the polytheists of Mecca planned to send one man from each tribe to kill the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in his home, hoping that the responsibility for the attack would be shared among the tribes, preventing the Banu Hashim from seeking vengeance alone.

Gabriel informed the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) of this plot, and it was decided that someone would sleep in his bed to allow him to leave Mecca for Medina. That night, Ali (AS) slept in the Prophet’s bed, and the polytheists, unaware of the Prophet’s escape, found Ali (AS) when they attacked his house. Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 207, was revealed in honor of this event and Imam Ali’s (AS) role, stating: “And among people is he who sells himself seeking the pleasure of Allah.”[51]

Ali (AS) also committed to returning the trusts that were with the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to their owners and later joined the Prophet in Medina with the Fatimas (Fatimah bint Muhammad, Fatimah bint Asad, and Fatimah bint Zubayr)[52].

Martyrdom

Imam Ali (AS) was wounded by a poisoned sword from Abd al-Rahman ibn Muljam Muradi while performing the morning prayers on the 19th of the holy month of Ramadan in the year 40 AH[53] and was martyred on the 21st of Ramadan[54] at the age of 63[55].

His sons Hasan and Husayn (peace be upon them) and Abdullah ibn Ja’far washed his body, and Imam Hasan (AS) led the funeral prayers[56]. Imam Ali’s (AS) body was buried at night in a secret ceremony[57] in Najaf[58].

List of Sources

  1. Ibn Athir al-Jazri, Izz al-Din; Asad al-Ghabah fi Ma’rifat al-Sahabah; Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, First Edition, 1409 AH.
  2. Ibn al-Jawzi, Abu al-Faraj Abd al-Rahman bin Ali bin Muhammad; Sifat al-Safwa; Edited by Abd al-Salam Harun; Beirut: Foundation of Cultural Books, 1413 AH.
  3. Ibn al-Jawzi; Al-Muntazam fi Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Muluk; Edited by Muhammad Abd al-Qadir Ata and Mustafa Abd al-Qadir Ata; Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, First Edition, 1412 AH.
  4. Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad bin Muhammad; Fada’il al-Sahabah; Edited by Abbas Wasi Allah bin Muhammad; Cairo: Dar Ibn al-Jawzi, 1430 AH.
  5. Ibn Khallikan, Shams al-Din Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abi Bakr; Wafayat al-A’yan wa Anba’ Abna’ al-Zaman; Edited by Ihsan Abbas; Qom: Publications of al-Sharif al-Radi, 1364.
  6. Ibn Sabagh Maliki, Ali bin Muhammad bin Ahmad; Al-Fusul al-Muhimma fi Ma’rifat al-A’immah; Edited by Sami al-Ghariri; Qom: Dar al-Hadith, 1422 AH.
  7. Ibn Asakir, Abu al-Qasim Ali bin al-Hassan bin Hibat Allah bin Abdullah al-Shafi’i; Tarikh Madinat Dimashq; Edited by Ali Shiri; Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
  8. Ibn Kathir al-Dimashqi, Abu al-Fida al-Hafiz Ismail bin Umar; Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya; Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1407 AH.
  9. Ibn Maghazili, Ali bin Muhammad; Manaqib Ahl al-Bayt alayhim al-salam; Tehran: The Global Assembly for the Rapprochement between Islamic Denominations, 1427 AH.
  10. Abu al-Fida, Ismail bin Ali bin Mahmoud; Tarikh Abi al-Fida al-Musamma al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar; Edited by Mahmoud Diab; Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1417 AH.
  11. Bukhari, Muhammad bin Ismail; Sahih al-Bukhari; Edited by Qasim al-Shamai al-Rifa’i; Beirut: Dar al-Qalam, 1407 AH.
  12. Baladhuri, Ahmad bin Yahya bin Jabir; Ansab al-Ashraf; Edited by Suhail Zakar and Riyadh Zarkali; Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, First Edition, 1417 AH.
  13. Banakati, Dawud bin Muhammad; Tarikh Banakati Rawdat Uli al-Albab fi Ma’rifat al-Tawarikh wa al-Ansab; Effort by Jafar Shiar; Tehran: Series of Publications of the National Heritage Association, 1348.
  14. Tirmidhi, Muhammad bin Isa; Sunan al-Tirmidhi; Edited by Sidqi Muhammad Jamil al-Attar; Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1421 AH.
  15. Hakim al-Haskani, Ubaidullah bin Abdullah; Shawahid al-Tanzil li Qawa’id al-Tafdil; Edited by Muhammad Baqir al-Mahmoudi; Tehran: Publishing and Printing Institute, 1411 AH.
  16. Dinawari, Abu Hanifa Ahmad bin Dawud; Al-Akhbar al-Tiwal; Edited by Abdul-Mun’im Amer; Qom: Publications of Razi, 1368.
  17. Dhahabi, Shams al-Din Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Uthman; Tarikh al-Islam wa Wafayat al-Mashahir wa al-A’lam; Edited by Umar Abdul Salam Tadmuri; Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, 1413 AH.
  18. Zarandi Hanafi, Jamal al-Din Muhammad bin Yusuf; Ma’arij al-Wusul ila Ma’rifat Ahl al-Rasul wa al-Batul; Tehran: Complex for the Revival of Islamic Culture, [date not specified].
  19. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi, Yusuf bin Qizughli al-Baghdadi; Tadhkirat al-Khawas min al-Ummah bi Dhikr Khasa’is al-A’immah; Qom: Publications of al-Sharif Razi, 1418 AH.
  20. Safadi, Salah al-Din Khalil bin Aybak; Al-Wafi bi al-Wafayat; Beirut: The German Institute, 1401 AH.
  21. San’ani, Abdul Razzaq bin Hammam; Al-Musannaf; Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1421 AH.
  22. Tabari, Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Jarir; Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Muluk; Edited by Muhammad Abul-Fadl Ibrahim; Beirut: Dar al-Turath, Second Edition, 1387 AH.
  23. Asqalani, Ahmad bin Ali bin Hajar; Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah; Edited by Adil Ahmad Abdul Mawjood and Ali Muhammad Muawad; Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, First Edition, 1415 AH.
  24. Qurtubi, Abu Amro Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abd al-Barr; Al-Isti’ab fi Ma’rifat al-Ashab; Edited by Bajawi Ali Muhammad; Beirut: Dar al-Jil, 1412 AH.
  25. Qushayri al-Nishaburi, Muslim bin al-Hajjaj; Sahih Muslim; Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm, 1419 AH.

Al-Bayhaqi al-Shafi’i, Muhammad bin Yusuf; Kifayah al-Talib fi Manaqib Ali bin Abi Talib (AS); Edited by Muhammad Hadi al-Amini; Tehran: Dar Ihya Turath Ahl al-Bayt, 1404 AH.

  1. Nasa’i, Ahmad bin Shu’ayb; Al-Sunan al-Kubra; Edited by Abdul Ghaffar Sulaiman al-Bandari and Said Kasrawi Hassan; Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1411 AH.
  2. Waqidi, Muhammad bin Sa’d Katib; Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra; Edited by Abdul Qadir Ata; Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1410 AH.


[1] Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari; History of Tabari; Vol. 5, p. 153.

[2] Dawud bin Muhammad Banakati; History of Banakati; p. 98.

[3] Ibn Sabagh Maliki; Al-Fusul al-Muhimma; Vol. 1, p. 171.

[4] Ali bin Muhammad Ibn Maghazili; Manaqib Ahl al-Bayt (AS); p. 55.

[5] Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari; History of Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 314.

[6] Abd al-Razzaq bin Hammam San’ani; Al-Musannaf; Vol. 5, p. 325.

[7] Muhammad bin Sa’d Katib Waqidi; Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra; Vol. 3, p. 15.

[8] Abu al-Faraj Ibn al-Jawzi; Al-Muntazam; Vol. 5, p. 66.

[9] Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari; History of Tabari, p. 310.

[10] Ali bin Hassan Ibn Asakir; History of the City of Damascus; Vol. 42, p. 73.

[11] Ahmad bin Shu’ayb al-Nasa’i; Al-Sunan al-Kubra; p. 126.

[12] Abu al-Faraj Ibn al-Jawzi; Sifat al-Safwa; Vol. 2, p. 5.

[13] Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Ganji Shafi’i; Kifayah al-Talib; p. 54.

[14] Ibn Athir al-Jazri; Asad al-Ghabah fi Ma’rifat al-Sahabah; Vol. 1, p. 490.

[15] Ubaidullah bin Abdullah al-Haskani; Shawahid al-Tanzil; Vol. 2, p. 394.

[16] Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari; Sahih al-Bukhari; Vol. 6, p. 502.

[17] Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Dhahabi; History of Islam and Deaths of Notables and Celebrities; Vol. 3, p. 627.

[18] Ibn Sabagh Maliki; previous, p. 245.

[19] Ibid; p. 237.

[20] Ibid, p. 240.

[21] Muhammad bin Isa al-Tirmidhi; Sunan al-Tirmidhi; Vol. 6, p. 78.

[22] Ibn Athir al-Jazri; previous, Vol. 3, p. 605.

[23] Abu al-Faraj Ibn al-Jawzi; previous, Vol. 1, p. 165.

[24] Muslim bin al-Hajjaj al-Nishapuri; Sahih Muslim; Vol. 4, p. 1489.

[25] Ahmad bin Yahya al-Baladhuri; Ansab al-Ashraf; Vol. 2, p. 91.

[26] Ahmad bin Muhammad Ibn Hanbal; Fada’il al-Sahabah; p. 244.

[27] Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari; Sahih al-Bukhari; Vol. 3, p. 79.

[28] Ibn Athir al-Jazri; previous, Vol. 3, p. 595.

[29] Muhammad bin Isa al-Tirmidhi; previous, p. 78.

[30] Ahmad bin Shu’ayb al-Nasa’i; previous, p. 56.

[31] Ismail bin Umar al-Dimashqi; Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya; Vol. 7, p. 343.

[32] Ibn Athir al-Jazri; previous, p. 607.

[33] Ahmad bin Yahya al-Baladhuri; previous, Vol. 2, p. 150.

[34] Ubaidullah bin Abdullah al-Haskani; Shawahid al-Tanzil; Vol. 1, p. 517.

[35] Ibn Athir al-Jazri; previous, p. 599.

[36] Ibid, p. 597.

[37] Khalil bin Aybak al-Safadi; Al-Wafi bi al-Wafayat; Vol. 21, p. 272.

[38] Ahmad bin Ali al-Asqalani; Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah; Vol. 4, p. 467.

[39] Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Zarandi; Ma’arij al-Wusul; p. 39.

[40] Yusuf bin Abdullah al-Qurtubi; Al-Isti’ab fi Ma’rifat al-Ashab; Vol. 3, p. 1101.

[41] Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Dhahabi; previous, p. 637.

[42] Ibn Sabagh Maliki; previous, p. 281.

[43] Ahmad bin Yahya al-Baladhuri; previous, p. 121.

[44] Ibid, p. 124.

[45] Ibn Athir al-Jazri; previous, p. 588.

[46] Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari; History of Tabari; Vol. 2, p. 514.

[47] Ali bin Hassan Ibn Asakir; History of the City of Damascus; Vol. 42, p. 71.

[48] Ibn Sabagh Maliki; previous, pp. 338-347.

[49] Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Dhahabi; previous, p. 626.

[50] Ismail bin Umar al-Dimashqi; previous, p. 224.

[51] Ahmad bin Ali al-Asqalani; previous, Vol. 4, p. 467.

[52] Ibn Sabagh Maliki; previous, pp. 288 and 289.

[53] Muhammad bin Jarir al-Tabari; previous; Vol. 5, p. 145.

[54] Ismail bin Umar al-Dimashqi; previous, p. 330.

[55] Yusuf bin Abdullah al-Qurtubi; previous, p. 1094.

[56] Ahmad bin Yahya al-Baladhuri; previous, p. 496.

[57] Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Dhahabi; previous, pp. 650 and 651.

[58] Ismail bin Ali Abu al-Fida; History of Abu al-Fida; Vol. 1, p. 252

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