Surah Hashr

Surah Hashr

Surah Hashr is the 59th surah of the Quran that Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad in the city of Medina. Hashr means banishment. The surah gets its name from the second verse that speaks about the banishment of a group of Jews from Medina. The surah begins with the glorification of Allah and ends with the glorification of Allah. In this article on Islam4u, the following topics will be discussed:

Facts About Surah Hashr

Surah Hashr is the 59th surah of the Noble Quran that Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad in Medina. The surah gets its name, Hashr, meaning banishment, from the second verse of the surah, which says that it was Allah who expelled a group of the People of the Book (Jews) from their homes when they were banished. Surah Hashr also talks about wealth that Muslims acquired without war and what they must do with it. Furthermore, it talks about the hypocrites and their disloyalty to the People of the Book. Finally, surah Hashr talks about Allah’s attributes and Best Names.

59 Surah no.

Juz’ 28 Place

Madani Makki/Madani

101 Order of revelation

24 No. of verses

445 No. of words

1913 No. of letters


Benefits of Reciting Surah Hashr

  1. A cure for all illnesses: There is a narration from the Noble Prophet that says that whoever puts his hand on his head and recites the last three verses of surah Hashr, will be cured of all illnesses except death.1
  2. Improving memory and intelligence: Abu Abdullah Ja‘far ibn Muhammad has said, “Whoever writes surah Hashr and washes it with clean water and then drinks from that water, he will acquire an excellent memory and great intelligence.2
  3. Being forgiven of sins: The Noble Prophet said, “Whoever recites the last three verses of surah Hashr, his past and future sins will be forgiven.”3
  4. A cure for headache: Ali ibn Abi Talib has said that the last verses of surah Hashr are a cure for headache.4

The Gist of Surah Hashr

One of the unique characteristics of Surah Hashr is that it begins with the glorification of Allah and ends with the glorification of Allah. Some of the things that are mentioned in surah Hashr are as follows:

  1. The story of the Jews of Banī Naḍīr and how they broke their covenant with the Muslims and were thus banished from Medina
  2. The laws concerning wealth that Muslims acquired without going to war
  3. The Muslims’ reproaching the hypocrites and revealing their secret activities
  4. Description of the activities of the Immigrants or the Muhājirūn and praising their sacrifices
  5. Mentioning Allah’s attributes of beauty and majesty toward the end of the surah

The Occasion of Revelation of Surah Hashr

When the Prophet migrated to Medina, he signed a peace treaty with the Jewish tribes living in Medina, meaning Banu Naḍīr (بني نَضير), Banu Qurayẓah (بني قُرَيظَة), and Banu Qaynuqā‘ (بَني قَينُقاع). However, they broke the treaty in three ways:

  1. The elder of the Jews, Ka‘b ibn Ashraf allied himself with Abu Sufyan after the Battle of Uhud.
  2. ‘Amr ibn Jaḥāsh who was one of the Jews of Banu Naḍīr conspired to kill the Prophet.
  3. The Jews composed poems insulting the Prophet.

After all of these conspiracies, the Muslims surrounded the fortress of the Jews and by burning the date palms surrounding them, they forced the Jews to surrender themselves after a few days passed. After this victory, the Jews left Medina.

A Verse About the Quran in Surah Hashr

Verse 21 of surah Hashr draws attention to a fact about the Quran. The verse reads:

لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿٢١﴾

Had We sent down this Quran upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled [and] go to pieces with the fear of Allah. We draw such comparisons for mankind, so that they may reflect.5

Allah is saying that the Quran is so sublime and great that if it was revealed to the mountains with all their strength and stability, they would go to pieces out of humility and fear for Allah. However, some human beings who pale in comparison to mountains in terms of strength and stability do not humble themselves before this great Quran. By drawing such parables, Allah wants us to reflect on the verses of the Quran.

Verses of the Attributes and Names of Allah

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٢٢﴾

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—Knower of the sensible and the Unseen, He is the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.6

This verse mentions four attributes of Allah. Allah is:

  1. The Knower of the sensible
  2. The Knower of the Unseen
  3. The All-beneficent
  4. The All-merciful

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٢٣﴾

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—the Sovereign, the All-holy, the All-benign, the Securer, the All-conserver, the All-mighty, the All-compeller, and the All-magnanimous. Clear is Allah of any partners that they may ascribe [to Him]!7

In verse 23 of surah Hashr, eight other names of Allah are mentioned. Allah having multiple attributes does not mean that He has multiple essences. No. In fact, He has a single essence with all the good attributes and names. That is why at the end of the above verse, Allah says that He is clear of any partners that people may ascribe to Him.

The Final Verse of Surah Hashr

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿٢٤﴾

He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, and the Former. To Him belong the Best Names. Whatever there is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.8

The final verse of surah Hashr mentions a few other names and attributes of Allah. Because His attributes are endless similar to His essence, Allah says that to Him belong the Best Names. For this reason, He is clear of any flaw or defect, and everything that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him and acknowledges His flawlessness. The fact that He is All-mighty means He has power over all things and the fact that He is All-wise means that He has knowledge over everything and can make plans for His creation.

Conclusion

Surah Hashr is one of the surahs of the Quran that Allah revealed to the Prophet in Medina. It talks about various topics, beginning with the banishment of the Jews of Medina. Then it talks about laws concerning wealth that Muslims acquire without going to war. Surah Hashr also describes the activities of the Immigrants and praises their sacrifices. Finally, the surah ends by mentioning Allah’s attributes of beauty and majesty and the Best Names of Allah. The Noble Prophet has said that reciting the last three verses of surah Hashr causes one’s past and future sins to be forgiven. Inshā’Allah, by reciting this surah, we will receive all its benefits.


References

  1. Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 89, p. 308.
  2. Tafseer al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 331.
  3. Majma‘ al-Bayān, vol. 9, p. 439.
  4. Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 89, p. 308
  5. Quran 59:21 (Qara’i).
  6. Quran 59:22 (Qara’i).
  7. Quran 59:23 (Qara’i).
  8. Quran 59:24 (Qara’i).

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Abu Mahdi
Abu Mahdi
I'm Abu Mahdi, one of the writers of this blog. I have a BA in English literature and an MA in English language teaching. I am also a teacher and reciter of the Quran in the field of reading the Quran, tajweed, and maqamat. Currently, we are working on a course for learning tajweed of the Quran here on Islam4u.

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