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Surah Hashr

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Surah Hashr is the 59th surah of the Quran that Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad in the city of Medina. Hashr means banishment. The surah gets its name from the second verse that speaks about the banishment of a group of Jews from Medina. The surah begins with the glorification of Allah and ends with the glorification of Allah. In this article on Islam4u, we will analyze this surah from different perspectives.

Facts About Surah Hashr

Surah Hashr is the 59th surah of the Noble Quran that Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad in Medina. The surah gets its name, Hashr, meaning banishment, from the second verse of the surah, which says that it was Allah who expelled a group of the People of the Book (Jews) from their homes when they were banished. Surah Hashr also talks about wealth that Muslims acquired without war and what they must do with it. Furthermore, it talks about the hypocrites and their disloyalty to the People of the Book. Finally, surah Hashr talks about Allah’s attributes and Best Names.

59 Surah no.

Juz’ 28 Place

Madani Makki/Madani

101 Order of revelation

24 No. of verses

445 No. of words

1913 No. of letters


Benefits of Reciting Surah Hashr

  1. A cure for all illnesses: There is a narration from the Noble Prophet that says that whoever puts his hand on his head and recites the last three verses of surah Hashr, will be cured of all illnesses except death.1
  2. Improving memory and intelligence: Abu Abdullah Ja‘far ibn Muhammad has said, “Whoever writes surah Hashr and washes it with clean water and then drinks from that water, he will acquire an excellent memory and great intelligence.2
  3. Being forgiven of sins: The Noble Prophet said, “Whoever recites the last three verses of surah Hashr, his past and future sins will be forgiven.”3
  4. A cure for headache: Ali ibn Abi Talib has said that the last verses of surah Hashr are a cure for headache.4
  5. It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that “Whoever recites Surah Hashr, Paradise and Hell, the Throne (‘Arsh) and Chair (Kursiyy), its curtains, the seven heavens and the seven earths, the wind, birds, trees, mountains, the sun, the moon, and the angels will all send blessings and salutations upon him, seek forgiveness and pardon for him, and if he passes away on that day or night, he will be considered a martyr.”
  6. It is also narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that “Whoever recites Surah Rahman and Hashr during the evening hours, Allah will send an angel to protect him until morning.”

The Gist of Surah Hashr

One of the unique characteristics of Surah Hashr is that it begins and ends with the glorification of Allah. Some of the things that are mentioned in surah Hashr are as follows:

  1. The story of the Jews of Banī Naḍīr and how they broke their covenant with the Muslims and were thus banished from Medina
  2. The laws concerning wealth that Muslims acquired without going to war
  3. The Muslims’ reproaching the hypocrites and revealing their secret activities
  4. Description of the activities of the Immigrants or the Muhājirūn and praising their sacrifices
  5. Mentioning Allah’s attributes of beauty and majesty toward the end of the surah

The Occasion of Revelation of Surah Hashr

When the Prophet migrated to Medina, he signed a peace treaty with the Jewish tribes living in Medina, meaning Banu Naḍīr (بني نَضير), Banu Qurayẓah (بني قُرَيظَة), and Banu Qaynuqā‘ (بَني قَينُقاع). However, they broke the treaty in three ways:

  1. The elder of the Jews, Ka‘b ibn Ashraf allied himself with Abu Sufyan after the Battle of Uhud.
  2. ‘Amr ibn Jaḥāsh who was one of the Jews of Banu Naḍīr conspired to kill the Prophet.
  3. The Jews composed poems insulting the Prophet.

After all of these conspiracies, the Muslims surrounded the fortress of the Jews and by burning the date palms surrounding them, they forced the Jews to surrender themselves after a few days passed. After this victory and upon the suggestion of the Prophet (s), the Jews left Medina, taking some of their belongings with them and destroying some of them. Some of them went to “Adhra‘at” in the Levant, a few went to “Khaybar,” and a group went to “Hirah.”

Famous Verses of Surah Hashr

This surah has several verses that many reciters have recited in different gatherings. Let us go over some of them.

Verse 18 of Surah Hashr

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَلْتَنظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ ۖ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ‎﴿١٨﴾

O you who have faith! Be wary of Allah, and let every soul consider what it sends ahead for Tomorrow, and be wary of Allah. Allah is indeed well aware of what you do (18)

This verse conveys the following messages:

1- Faith prepares the ground for piety, and the prerequisite for the effectiveness of faith is having piety.

2- We should not have hopes in the works of those from whom we have inherited. Everyone should think about their own fate on the Day of Qiyamah.

3- We should be careful in what we store as good deeds.

4- Self-accountability is necessary. (If we don’t pay attention today, tomorrow’s attention will lead to embarrassment).

5- The Day of Judgment is near. “For tomorrow.” (As mentioned elsewhere in the Quran: “They think it is far away, and We see it near.” [Quran 70:6-7])

6- Foresight and concern for the Hereafter are essential aspects of faith.

7- Piety provides the basis for self-accountability, and self-accountability is the means for growing and strengthening piety.

8- No one should feel secure at any stage.

9- Believing in Allah’s omniscience causes one to be pious.

Verse 20 of Surah Hashr

لَا يَسْتَوِىٓ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ وَأَصْحَٰبُ ٱلْجَنَّةِ ۚ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلْجَنَّةِ هُمُ ٱلْفَآئِزُونَ ‎﴿٢٠﴾

Not equal are the inmates of the Fire and the inhabitants of paradise. It is the inhabitants of paradise who are the successful ones. (20)

Allah has created us in this world to test us. We did not come to this world with no purpose. Allah tests us to see who obeys Him and who disobeys Him so that He could reward those who do so and punish those who do not. As a result, we have come to this world for a purpose. Good and bad people will not be dealt with in the same way. In the above verse, Allah asserts that we should not think the people of the Fire and the people of paradise are the same. No. Those who have become worthy of entering paradise are truly successful, while those who deserve to be in hell are wretched.

Verse 21 of Surah Hashr

لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا ٱلْقُرْءَانَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُۥ خَٰشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ ٱلْأَمْثَٰلُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ‎﴿٢١﴾

Had We sent down this Quran upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled [and] go to pieces with the fear of Allah. We draw such comparisons for mankind, so that they may reflect. (21)

One of the methods the Quran uses to educate us is indirect criticism. When Allah says that if this Quran was revealed upon a mountain, it would have crumbled to pieces out of fear of Allah, He means that there are some humans whose hearts are harder than stone and are not humbled when the Quran is recited to them. So by drawing comparisons, such as the one in this verse, Allah conveys His subtle messages to us. Moreover, as it is said in the last part of this verse, it is necessary to reflect upon the comparisons that Allah draws in the Quran, otherwise, we would not understand them correctly.

Verses 22-24 of Surah Hashr

هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَٰلِمُ ٱلْغَيْبِ وَٱلشَّهَٰدَةِ ۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ ‎﴿٢٢﴾‏ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلْمَلِكُ ٱلْقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَٰمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْجَبَّارُ ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ‎﴿٢٣﴾‏ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْخَٰلِقُ ٱلْبَارِئُ ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ ٱلْأَسْمَآءُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ ‎﴿٢٤﴾‏

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—Knower of the sensible and the Unseen, He is the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. (22) He is Allah—there is no god except Him—the Sovereign, the All-holy, the All-benign, the Securer, the All-conserver, the All-mighty, the All-compeller, and the All-magnanimous. Clear is Allah of any partners that they may ascribe [to Him]! (23) He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, and the Former. To Him belong the Best Names. Whatever there is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise. (24)

Allah describes Himself in these verses. He knows what is hidden and what is apparent. He has knowledge of the things we know and do not know. Allah is very kind and compassionate to everyone. Of course, He is especially merciful to the believers. In verse 23, Allah tells us that the one and only deity who deserves to be worshipped must have absolute authority over His creation. He is All-benign, that is, He does not cause any harm to His creation. Allah has full control over His creation. Finally, the way the polytheists describe Him is incorrect because He does not have any partner.

In verse 24, Allah says that He is a creator who has not copied anything from anyone and is the original creator of everything. To Him belong the Best Names. The one who has these best names deserves to be glorified.

Verse 21 of surah Hashr draws attention to a fact about the Quran. The verse reads:

لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿٢١﴾

Had We sent down this Quran upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled [and] go to pieces with the fear of Allah. We draw such comparisons for mankind, so that they may reflect.5

Allah is saying that the Quran is so sublime and great that if it was revealed to the mountains with all their strength and stability, they would go to pieces out of humility and fear for Allah. However, some human beings who pale in comparison to mountains in terms of strength and stability do not humble themselves before this great Quran. By drawing such parables, Allah wants us to reflect on the verses of the Quran.

Verses of the Attributes and Names of Allah

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٢٢﴾

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—Knower of the sensible and the Unseen, He is the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.6

This verse mentions four attributes of Allah. Allah is:

  1. The Knower of the sensible
  2. The Knower of the Unseen
  3. The All-beneficent
  4. The All-merciful

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٢٣﴾

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—the Sovereign, the All-holy, the All-benign, the Securer, the All-conserver, the All-mighty, the All-compeller, and the All-magnanimous. Clear is Allah of any partners that they may ascribe [to Him]!7

In verse 23 of surah Hashr, eight other names of Allah are mentioned. Allah having multiple attributes does not mean that He has multiple essences. No. In fact, He has a single essence with all the good attributes and names. That is why at the end of the above verse, Allah says that He is clear of any partners that people may ascribe to Him.

The Final Verse of Surah Hashr

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿٢٤﴾

He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, and the Former. To Him belong the Best Names. Whatever there is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.8

The final verse of surah Hashr mentions a few other names and attributes of Allah. Because His attributes are endless similar to His essence, Allah says that to Him belong the Best Names. For this reason, He is clear of any flaw or defect, and everything that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him and acknowledges His flawlessness. The fact that He is All-mighty means He has power over all things and the fact that He is All-wise means that He has knowledge over everything and can make plans for His creation.

Conclusion

Surah Hashr is one of the surahs of the Quran that Allah revealed to the Prophet in Medina. It talks about various topics, beginning with the banishment of the Jews of Medina. Then it talks about laws concerning wealth that Muslims acquire without going to war. Surah Hashr also describes the activities of the Immigrants and praises their sacrifices. Finally, the surah ends by mentioning Allah’s attributes of beauty and majesty and the Best Names of Allah. The Noble Prophet has said that reciting the last three verses of surah Hashr causes one’s past and future sins to be forgiven. Inshā’Allah, by reciting this surah, we will receive all its benefits.


References

  1. Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 89, p. 308.
  2. Tafseer al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 331.
  3. Majma‘ al-Bayān, vol. 9, p. 439.
  4. Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 89, p. 308
  5. Quran 59:21 (Qara’i).
  6. Quran 59:22 (Qara’i).
  7. Quran 59:23 (Qara’i).
  8. Quran 59:24 (Qara’i).
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