Take a fresh look at your lifestyle.

The Hijrah: The Prophet Muhammad’s Migration from Mecca to Medina

0 633

Murderous Plot

In the revered halls of “Dar al-Nadwa,” the leaders and chiefs of Quraysh convened. In the face of each adversity that befell them, they gathered to find solutions, addressing issues through consultation and collective effort, engaging in robust discussions to navigate their tribulations.

In the twelfth and thirteenth years of the Prophetic mission, Mecca faced a profound threat. Muslims had established a significant presence and a solid base in Yathrib (Medina), where the courageous inhabitants pledged to protect and defend the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny. Such occurrences marked the ominous menace that imperiled the pagan and idol-worshipping entities, challenging the leadership of Quraysh.

In Rabi’ al-Awwal of the thirteenth year, as the migration of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, unfolded, only a few remained in Mecca, including the Prophet, Imam Ali, Abu Bakr, and a handful of Muslims who were either detained, sick, or elderly. Poised at the brink of migrating and leaving Mecca for Medina, Quraysh suddenly resolved with a definitive and perilous decision.

An important session was held at “Dar al-Nadwa,” attended by the chiefs and leaders of Quraysh, where discussions revolved around the concentration of Islamic forces in Medina. Proposals were laid down, and suggestions reverberated through the hall, marking the urgent tones of their deliberation.

Amid the congregation, a voice punctuated the silence—offering a murderous plot against Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him and his family. Various strategies were debated, from assassination plots to strategies of exile. Differing opinions clashed, with each being meticulously scrutinized for its feasibility and impact.

The council, laden with uncertainty, was a theatre of varying opinions, each contributing to the grim mosaic of their collective contemplation. A final strategy emerged—a collective assassination by representatives of each clan, diffusing the responsibility of the Prophet, peace be upon him, blood across Quraysh, making it difficult for the Prophet’s clan to seek retribution against all.

This consensus seemed to be the answer to their grim deliberations. Choices were made, executioners selected, and a chilling resolve settled over them, readying themselves to enact their plot as the night shrouded the city in its ominous veil.

Divine Support

Those brute ignoramuses imagined that the message of prophet Muhammad, peace, and blessings be upon him and his family, supported by Allah the Almighty and bolstered by His divine, could be annihilated through tricks and schemes, strategies, and conspiracies. They failed to realize that this prophet, like others before him, was graced with unseen divine support. The hand that guarded the torch of Islam against storms and winds for thirteen years is capable of thwarting such wicked plans and disabling these conspiracies as well.

narrators say: After the infidels conspired, the angel of revelation, “Gabriel”, descended upon the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, informing him of the conspiracy hatched against him by the polytheists, revealing the words of Allah Almighty: “And [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah]. But they plan, and Allah plans. And Allah is the best of planners” (Quran 8:30).

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, was then commanded to migrate from Mecca to Medina. Escaping the hands of those harsh men, appointed to kill him by the pagan leaders, and considering the precise surveillance, was not an easy task, especially given the distance between Mecca and Medina.

Had the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, not left Mecca following an accurate and sound plan, it would have been very likely for the Meccans to catch him on the way, apprehend him, and shed his noble blood before reaching his followers and companions.

Narrators and historians have recounted various scenarios regarding the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, exit, and migration. The variance seen among these interpretations and historical accounts concerning the specifics and details of this incident is somewhat rare compared to other events.

The author of “The Halabi Biography” managed, to some extent, to harmonize the various narratives and reports with a special demonstration, but failed to eliminate contradictions and discrepancies in some areas on this front.

An interesting point is that most Shi’ite and Sunni historians reported the details of the Prophet’s migration and his departure from his house, then from Mecca, attributing the Prophet’s, peace be upon him and his family, survival, and salvation to miraculous factors, thus, they bestowed upon it a hue of dignity and miracle.

While delving into the details of this story reveals that the Prophet’s, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, survival resulted from a series of precautionary measures, calculations, and wise maneuvers. Allah’s will was attached to saving His noble prophet through ordinary, familiar means, not through unseen intervention or the employment of His divine unseen power.

This is evidenced by the fact that the Prophet sought natural reasons and ordinary means (like someone sleeping in the Prophet’s bed, the disappearance of the Messenger of Allah in the cave, among others to be mentioned), through which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, saved himself, escaping the clutches of his enemies who were determined to shed his blood.

The angel of revelation informs the Messenger of Allah

Indeed, the angel of revelation, “Gabriel,” informed the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, of the ominous plan of Quraysh to assassinate him and order him to migrate. It was decided—to thwart the pursuit operation—that someone should sleep in the bed of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, so that the polytheists would assume that the Prophet was still in his house and had not left yet, and therefore, they would focus all their attention on surrounding the house and divert from monitoring the routes of Mecca and its vicinities.

The benefit of this act, which limited the observers’ attention to the Prophet’s house, allowed the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to seize the opportunity and leave Mecca and disappear somewhere without anyone who stayed observing his house, seeking to kill him, noticing.

Now, we must see who volunteered to sleep in the bed of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and sacrifice himself for the Prophet, protecting him with his life.

You will surely say: Indeed, the one who preceded all Muslims in faith in the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and defended him since the beginning of his mission, is the one who should sacrifice himself in this way, keeping the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, alive at this critical moment. This sacrificer of his life and soul is “Ali,” no one else. This is a correct estimation and a correct intuition.

No one but “Ali” is suitable for this dangerous task.

For this, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, said to Ali, peace be upon him: “O Ali, indeed Quraysh have conspired to deceive and kill me. It was revealed to me by my Lord to leave my people’s house. Sleep in my bed and cover yourself with my Hadrami cloak to hide my traces from them by your stay. What do you say and what will you do??”

Ali, peace be upon him, said: “Will you be safe by my staying there, O Prophet of Allah?”

He said: “Yes,” then Ali, peace be upon him, smiled, happy, and prostrated on the ground, thankful for what the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, informed him of his safety. When he raised his head, he said to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family: “Go ahead with what you are commanded. My hearing, sight, and heart are at your service. Command me whatever you want. I will be as you wish, acting to achieve what you want, and my success is only from Allah.”

Then Ali, peace be upon him, slept in the bed of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and covered himself with the green Hadrami cloak. When half the night passed, Quraysh’s watchers—forty men—surrounded the house of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, with their swords unsheathed, waiting for the moment to attack the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and peeping inside the house from the door’s gap every now and then to make sure that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, remained in his bed, assuming that the sleeper in the bed was the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family.

Here, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, wanted to leave his house.

On one side, the enemies besieged the house of the Prophet, blessings, and peace be upon him, from every direction, scrutinizing every movement. On the other, it was the will of the Almighty Allah, omnipotent and prevailing, to save the Messenger of Allah, blessings and peace be upon him, from the clutches of that debased group. Thus, the Messenger of Allah recited Surah Ya-Sin, appropriately matching the onset of its verses to his circumstances, until he reached the part where Almighty said: “So they do not see.” He then left the house without being detected by the Quraysh guards assigned to kill him and moved to the place where it had been decided that he would hide, which will be detailed later.

As for how the Messenger of Allah could penetrate the stringent human blockade that had been established around his house, bypassing the guards of Quraysh without them noticing, this is not well known.

However, it is gleaned from a narration transmitted by the renowned Shia exegete, the late Ali bin Ibrahim in his commentary: the words of Allah the Almighty: “And when the disbelievers plotted against you” indicate that the men of Quraysh were asleep, waiting for dawn at the departure of the Messenger of Allah, not imagining that the Messenger of Allah had become aware of their plans and conspiracy.

But other historians and biographers state that those besieging the Prophet’s house were alert until the moment of the attack on the house of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet, blessings, and peace be upon him, left the house through a way of miracle and honor without them seeing or sensing him.

The possibility of such a miraculous occurrence is not doubtful, but was there a necessity for it?

A comprehensive study of the migration story decisively concludes that the Prophet, blessings, and peace be upon him and his family, was aware of the people’s conspiracy before the siege of his house. He had ordinarily planned for his escape without any involvement of miracles.

Indeed, the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, intended by having Imam Ali (peace be upon him) lie in his bed, to save himself from the hands of the polytheists through normal ways and means, without resorting to miracles or divine honors.

Thus, it was within the Prophet’s capability to anticipate the siege and the blockade that was to be placed around his house from early night, by leaving his house before the siege and before sunset.

However, there could be a reason for the Prophet’s staying in the house until the time of the siege that we are not aware of now.

Hence, the claim about this issue, which is the departure of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, from the house at night, is not definitively accepted by everyone. Some believe that the Messenger of Allah left his home before the imposition of the siege upon him, and before sunset.

The enemies storming the house of revelation

The forces of disbelief besieged the descent of revelation and the house of the message, waiting for the moment of permission to storm it, and to attack the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, in his bed, to strike and sever him with swords mercilessly!

A group of them insisted on executing their ominous plan at midnight and before dawn. However, Abu Lahab prevented them, saying: ‘I will not allow you to enter at night, for there are children and women from Bani Hashim in the house, and we do not feel secure against a mistaken hand. Let’s guard him tonight, and when we get up in the morning, we will enter upon him.’

It might be said that the reason for the delay was that they wanted to kill the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, in the morning in front of the eyes of Bani Hashim so that they would see that his killer was a group and not just one individual.

Darkness gradually lifted, and dawn broke, and a strange eagerness stirred in the polytheists as zero hour approached. They were imagining that they would soon achieve what they wanted. While they were preparing their swords, they entered the room of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family. As they were about to strike the person lying in the bed with their swords, they confronted Imam Ali, peace be upon him, jumping up in their faces as he revealed himself with the green garment of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, and said to them with utmost reassurance and courage: ‘What is the matter? What do you want?’

They said to him angrily, ‘Where is Muhammad?’ He replied peace be upon him, ‘Did you appoint me as his guard?’

The people were extremely furious, and intense anger almost choked them. They regretted waiting for the dawn to break and blamed Abu Lahab who prevented them from executing the attack on the Prophet at midnight, causing the plan to fail and missing the opportunity. So, they turned to him, blaming and rebuking him!!

Indeed, Quraysh was greatly disturbed by the failure of this conspiracy, finding themselves in the face of a disgraceful defeat that shattered all their dreams. They had imagined that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, could not leave Mecca’s boundaries in such a short time, thinking that he was either hiding in Mecca or still on his way to Medina. So, they immediately set about arranging to pursue and capture him.

The Prophet in the cave of Thawr

What is commonly agreed upon is that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, and Abu Bakr spent the night of the Hijra and two other nights in the cave of Thawr, which is located south of Mecca at a point adjacent to Medina.

It is not clear how this companionship and accompaniment happened and why. This issue is one of the mysterious historical matters. Some people believe that this companionship was coincidental; the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, saw Abu Bakr on the way and took him to the cave of Thawr.

Another group narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and his family, went to Abu Bakr’s house on the same night, and then they both left at midnight for the cave of Thawr.

A third group said: that Abu Bakr himself came wanting the Prophet, and Imam Ali, peace be upon him, had already guided him to the Prophet’s hiding place.

In any case, many historians consider this companionship one of the caliph’s proud achievements and virtues. They mention this virtue and talk about it with much detail and exaggeration, and with much appreciation and admiration. Nonetheless, through a careful and correct reading of history, it has been understood that it wasn’t Abu Bakr accompanying him in the cave, but rather someone else. Numerous books have been authored exploring and elaborating on this perspective.

Quraysh Seeks the Prophet

Driven by their failure to alter their strategies, Quraysh intensified their vigilance, swarming the pathways of Mecca with eyes that sought any trace of revelation. Spies shadowed the city’s entries and exits, each corner echoing with the whispers of their pursuit. A cavalcade was dispatched, its presence lingering everywhere, particularly on the Mecca-Medina route.

An enticing bounty of a hundred camels awaited the one who could seize God’s Prophet, returning him or delivering true tidings of his whereabouts. Several factions from Quraysh zealously sought the Messenger of God, their search reaching the northern roads of Mecca, where paths whispered of routes to Medina. And while their determination painted the sands with the fervor of their chase, the Prophet, peace be upon him, was concealed in a southern recess of the city, a move masterful in evading pursuit.

Another contingent of Quraysh, consumed by their mission, tracked the footprints of the divine Messenger and his companion. Guided by Abu Makriz, they followed a trail that spoke of divine steps, a journey painted in sands that halted at the mouth of a cave. There, evidence ceased to speak, and words turned to wonder: Had Muhammad and his companion ascended to the heavens or vanished beneath the earth’s embrace? For at the cave’s entrance, a spider had woven its silence, and a dove stood guardian to its eggs.

For three days and their nights, the echoes of their search resounded, but the heavens held their secret well. Wearied and despaired, the pursuers retired their chase, leaving the sands to whisper the tales of their pursuit.

Devotion to the Cause of Truth

Prominent in this chapter of history is the emblem of devotion shown by Ali, peace be upon him. Such commitment to truth is the hallmark of those souls ensnared by the essence of right and reality, who, wrapped in love and passion, give themselves wholly to its embrace. They stand as stalwart sentinels who, forsaking worldly illusions, devote their spirits, wealth, and persona in service of sustaining the truth and breathing life into its presence.

In the illumination of their purpose, they find their perfection and joy, a flame that urges their hearts away from fleeting existence towards a life enshrined in eternal truth. The act of Ali spending that ominous night in the Prophet’s bed is a luminous testament to this profound love and genuine passion for truth. It was nothing but his love for the enduring flame of Islam, which ensures societal bliss and life’s prosperity, that fueled his willingness to embrace such a formidable task.

Indeed, such sacrifice and devotion possess immense value, so much so that Allah the Exalted has praised them in His magnificent book, describing them as sincere sacrifices to earn Allah’s satisfaction. The following verse was revealed – according to the interpretation of most scholars – in this context: “And of the people is he who sells himself, seeking means to the approval of Allah. And Allah is kind to [His] servants.” (12)

The grandeur of this virtue and the significance of this mighty sacrificial act have led the prominent scholars of Islam to consider it one of the greatest virtues of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), describing Ali with devotion, generosity, and selflessness. They consider the revelation of the aforementioned verse about him an established fact in discussions of interpretation and history.

This truth is unforgettable. Reality may be obscured and overshadowed for a while, but soon the radiant rays of truth tear apart the veils of illusion, and the sun of truth emerges from behind the clouds.

Indeed, Muawiya’s hostility towards the family of prophecy, especially Imam Ali (peace be upon him), is unquestionable. This tyrant sought, through tempting some companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his family), to tarnish the illustrious pages of history and conceal its truths by spreading falsehoods, but he did not succeed in this endeavor.

Muawiya persistently asked “Samra bin Jundub”, who had experienced the era of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) and later joined Muawiya’s court in Sham, to distort the facts in exchange for wealth received from the Umayyad regime, hostile to the Prophet’s household.

Simple listeners accepted his words, however, the truth cannot be concealed by such frail barriers, nor forgotten through such feeble, spider-web-like attempts.

Muawiya’s regime and its supporters faced incidents, and the fabrications and concoctions of his ominous era vanished. The sun of truth and reality shone again from behind the veils of ignorance and slander, and the majority of revered interpreters and noble narrators, across various eras, acknowledged that the mentioned verse was revealed during “the night of stay,” referring to Ali’s (peace be upon him) sacrifice and his representation of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his family).

Moreover, one of the atrocities committed by this man was the murder of eight thousand individuals in Basra, during the era of Ziyad bin Abihi in Iraq, who loved and supported the Prophet’s household. When Muawiya asked him if he feared having killed an innocent person, he answered, saying: “Even if I killed double the number, I wouldn’t fear!” The disgrace of this man is too vast to be contained within these few pages.

Sumarah is the rigid and uncompassionate man who repeatedly rejected the request of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, to consider the rights of his neighbor in the palm tree dispute. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, said to him, ‘Indeed, you are a man of harm, and there should be neither harm nor reciprocation of harm in Islam.’ For further clarification, refer to the books of Hadith, biographies, and history.

Words from Ibn Taymiyyah

Ahmad bin Abdul Halim al-Harrani al-Hanbali, who died in prison in Damascus in 728, is one of the scholars of Sunni, and most of the beliefs of the Wahhabis are traced back to him and their ideas.

Ibn Taymiyyah has special opinions and positions regarding the noble Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, and the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali, and the general people of the House of Prophecy. He has clarified most of these opinions and beliefs in his book “Path of the Sunnah”.

His deviant beliefs and misguided opinions pushed many scholars of his time to excommunicate him and disassociate from him.

Ibn Taymiyyah has a strange opinion about this virtue that we mention to the kind reader with a slight modification in the wording.

It is unfortunate that some naive and ignorant people were influenced by his opinions, so we find them spreading his opinions in society without investigating what he said, and without consulting the experts to know their opinion on his ideas and beliefs, and they are unaware that such opinions were issued by a deviant and the people of his sect denied and excommunicated him because of them.

Here is a summary of his opinion on the virtue of “The Night of Stay”.

He says: The overnight stay of “Ali” in the bed of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, is not considered a virtue because Ali knew in two ways that nothing would harm him that night:

First: The information of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, the truthful believer, himself informed him of this when he said to him that night, “Sleep in my bed because nothing you dislike will reach you”.

Second: That the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, tasked him with returning the deposits and fulfilling the trusts that the people of Mecca had entrusted to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, to their owners. So he knew from this that he would not be killed, or the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, would have entrusted others with them. Ali knew from this assignment that he would not be harmed in this operation and that he would be able to perform what the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, entrusted him with.

The answer: Before we answer this speech in detail, we say in brief: Ibn Taymiyyah, by denying this virtue, proved a higher virtue for Ali, peace be upon him, because either Ali’s belief in the truthfulness of the Messenger’s words was ordinary faith, or it was very strong faith, and all the sayings of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, and his news was for him—in light of his faith—clear as daylight.

On the first assumption, Ali did not have certainty about his survival from that event because such a class of people (and undoubtedly Ali is definitely not one of them) does not have certainty from the words of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, and even if they accept it outwardly, they will be troubled by anxiety, and unrest will not leave them, and if they spend the night in his bed in moments of danger, they will remain vulnerable to fear and awe, and many possibilities about the outcome of the matter and its destiny will pass in their souls, and the terrifying specter of death will appear before them at every moment and time.

On this assumption, it must be said: that Ali, peace be upon him, did not undertake this dangerous matter except while he was risking destruction at the hands of the polytheists, not that he slept while he was certain of survival and safety.

Based on the second assumption, a higher and greater virtue is confirmed for Ali, peace be upon him, because a man’s faith must reach the level of strength and perfection where he does not distinguish between the truthfulness of the Prophet’s words and the clarity of daylight, meaning that they are both equally true to him.

There is no doubt that the importance of such faith cannot be equaled by anything.

The result of this faith is that when the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, said to him: “Sleep in my bed, and you will not be harmed by the hateful attack of the enemies,” he sleeps in the bed of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, with a confident heart of safety, and a soul reassured of survival, without the slightest possibility of danger haunting him.

If Ibn Taymiyyah’s intention by saying: that Ali was confident of his safety because the truthful believer informed him of this, it is: proving the highest levels of faith for Ali, peace be upon him. He has proven for him, peace be upon him, unconsciously the greatest virtue, and the highest rank, which is the perfection of faith and confidence in the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, and his news.

This is the general answer, and here is the detailed answer:

For a detailed answer, we discuss the first piece of evidence: The phrase “nothing you dislike will conclude against you” was not conveyed by some biographers and historians who are recognized in this field.

Indeed, Ibn al-Athir, who passed away in the year 630, and al-Tabari, who died in the year 310, narrated this phrase as if they had taken it from Ibn Hisham in his biography, in which he transferred the phrase as previously mentioned, especially since the wording of those two authors (al-Tabari and Ibn al-Athir) matches exactly with that of Ibn Hisham in this area. This is in addition to the fact that the matter does not appear this way in the writings of Shia scholars, as far as we know.

The Shia sect leader, Muhammad bin al-Hasan al-Tusi, who passed away in the year 460, conveyed the story of the migration in more detail and precision in his aspirations. He mentioned the aforementioned phrase with slight modification. However, the portrayal of the matter still differs from what is present in the books of the Sunni people. He, may God have mercy on him, explicitly states that Ali, peace be upon him, left with “Hind bin Abi Hala,” the son of Khadija and the stepson of the Messenger of God, may peace be upon him, in the middle of the night two nights after the migration until they reached the Prophet, peace be upon him. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to Ali: “From now on, nothing you dislike will reach you until you come to me.”

This sentence resembles the sentences mentioned by Ibn Hisham, al-Tabari, and Ibn al-Athir, but the Prophet, peace be upon him, said it to Ali, peace be upon him, reassuring him two nights after sleeping in the bed, and not the night of sleeping as narrated by the aforementioned three.

In addition to this, the words of Ali himself are the best witness to what we say: Ali, peace be upon him, considered his action (i.e., sleeping in the bed of the Messenger of God, peace be upon him, on that dreadful night) as a model of his sacrifice and dedication for the sake of truth, as is clearly shown in his poetry where he says:

I protected with my soul, better than [anyone] who tread the gravel,

And [better than] he who circled the Ancient House and the [Black] Stone.

Muhammad, when he feared that they would conspire against him,

My Lord, the Majestic, saved him from their scheme.

I stayed, expecting from them what would harm me,

And I had resolved myself to death and captivity.

The Messenger of God spent the night in the cave, safe,

There, under the protection of God and in concealment.”

With these explicit phrases, there is no room to rely on the words of Ibn Hisham, as many indicators point to his error, and it is quite possible that his confusion and mistake originated from his summarization of the biography of Ibn Ishaq. And since he (meaning Ibn Hisham) based his biography on conciseness, he only conveyed the essence of the phrase, neglecting the circumstance of its utterance because he did not deem the timing of its utterance important. He narrated the event in a way that suggests that all these matters happened in a single night!

Our opinion is also supported by the well-known hadith narrated by many Sunni and Shia scholars: God revealed to Gabriel and Michael, peace be upon them, that He had created a bond of brotherhood between them and made the lifespan of one longer than the other, and [asked] which of them would prefer his brother [over himself].

Both of them disliked death, so God revealed to them: “My servants, wouldn’t you be like my guardian ‘Ali’? I created a bond of brotherhood between him and ‘Muhammad,’ My prophet, and he preferred him over himself for survival.” He said: “He slept on his bed, protecting him with his soul.” Then He ordered them to descend to Earth and guard Ali and protect him from his enemy.”

As for the second piece of evidence that Ibn Taymiyyah benefited from, [it is] that Ali knew his destiny, which is the Prophet’s, peace be upon him, instruction to him to return the trusts and deposits to their owners. This reveals that the Messenger of God, peace be upon him, knew that no harm would reach him, and therefore he ordered him to return the deposits and trusts to their owners.

But we believe that we can find a solution to this problem if we review the rest of the migration story in a clear and complete manner.

Al-Khatib and the Case of Spending the Night

It is fitting that we conclude with what was written by Professor Abdul Karim Al-Khatib about Imam Ali (peace be upon him) spending the night in the bed of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family), where he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) called Ali on the night of the Hijrah and asked him to spend the night in the place where the Messenger usually slept and to cover himself with the Hadrami cloak that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) used to cover himself with so that when someone from Quraysh looked at the house, it seemed as if the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) was sleeping in his place covered with the cloak. What Ali did on the night of the Hijrah, when looked at in the context of the events that occurred to Imam Ali in his life after that night, it clearly indicates that this arrangement was not incidental but was a decision of wisdom with its effects. He says – when the presence of the Messenger was absent, Ali was the person prepared to succeed and represent him, and to stand in his place. When we saw Ali in the Messenger’s cloak and in his usual sleeping place, we said: this is the successor of the Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) and the one who stands in his place.

The Remainder of the Prophet’s Migration Story

The first stages of the rescue of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) ended successfully, according to a correct plan. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) sought refuge in the middle of the night in the cave of Thawr, and hid there, thus thwarting the conspirators’ attempt against him.

Indeed, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) was reassured all this time, not feeling any anxiety or disturbance in himself. He even reassured his travel companion when he found him disturbed in those sensitive moments by saying: (Do not be sad; indeed, Allah is with us).

And he stayed there for three nights, guarded by the eye of Allah Almighty and covered by His care and kindness. Ali (peace be upon him), Hind bin Abi Hala (the son of Khadijah) as narrated by Sheikh Al-Tusi in his Amali, Abdullah bin Abi Bakr and Amer bin Fahira, Abu Bakr’s sheep shepherd, visited him (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) during this time.

Ibn Al-Atheer says: Abdullah bin Abi Bakr used to eavesdrop for them in Mecca during the day, then he would come to them at night, and he used to graze his sheep near the cave during the day, and when he left them, he erased the traces of the sheep.

Sheikh Al-Tusi says in his Amali: When Ali (peace be upon him) and Hind entered the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) in the cave (after the night of the Hijrah), the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) ordered Ali to purchase two camels for him and his companion. Abu Bakr said: I had prepared for me and you, O Messenger of Allah, two rides to travel to Yathrib.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) said: I will not take them or one of them except for a price. Then he (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) ordered Ali (peace be upon him), and he paid him the price of the two camels.

Among the advice of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, to Ali, peace be upon him, in the cave that night, was to publicly return the trust to the people. He was instructed to stand in the open, morning and evening, proclaiming: ‘Whoever has a trust with Muhammad, let him come, and we will return his trust to him”.

Then, he entrusted him with the care of the Fatimas (The Fatimas are: Fatima al-Zahra, the beloved daughter of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and his cherished one; Fatima bint Asad, the mother of Ali, peace be upon him; and Fatima bint al-Zubair and those from the Banu Hashim who wanted to migrate with him). He ordered him to arrange for their departure to Yathrib and to prepare the necessary provisions and mounts.

Here, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said words that Ibn Taymiyyah used as an argument: ‘From now on, O Ali, they will not be able to harm you with something you dislike until you meet me.’ What is noteworthy to the reader is that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said these words when he ordered him to return the trusts, after the conclusion of the night of staying (in the cave). Meaning that he ordered Ali to do so and said these words as he prepared to leave the cave of Thawr.

Exiting the Cave Ali (peace be upon him) prepared, by the order of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his family), three camels and a trustworthy guide named Areeqaz to accompany them to Medina. The guide was sent to show them the way and all were sent to the cave. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his family) heard the camels or the call of the guide, he and his companion descended from the cave, mounted the camels, and headed from below Mecca to “Yathrib,” following the coastal route. The stops they made are mentioned in the prophetic biography by Ibn Hisham and in the footnotes confirmed in the complete history by Ibn Al-Athir.

The First Page of History Indeed, darkness had enveloped everywhere, and the sun had withdrawn its golden rays from this side of the earth to direct them to the other side. A group of Quraysh men, who had searched every path in Mecca and its suburbs looking for the Prophet for three days and nights, returned to their homes tired and exhausted, having despaired of winning the reward (a hundred camels) set by the Quraysh leaders for capturing Prophet Muhammad or informing about his location. The Mecca-Medina route, which had been closed for this purpose, was reopened after despairing of capturing the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him).

At these very moments, the call of the guide, who was accompanying three camels and some food, reached the ears of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) and his companion in the cave. He spoke softly, saying that they must use the darkness of this night as a cover, quickly leave the Meccan territories, and choose a path less traveled where no one could find them. The history of the Muslims begins exactly in the year that included that night, and Muslims started measuring all events against that year, thus determining the date and time of their occurrence.

Why the Hijri Year Became the Starting Point of History Indeed, Islam completed all divine laws, coming to humanity encompassing the laws of Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them), but in a more complete form and in a manner compatible with all circumstances and situations.

Although the birth of Jesus Christ (peace be upon him) is respected by Muslims, his birth was not taken as a starting point for their calendar and timing. The Arabs had made the Year of the Elephant a starting point for their calendar, referring to their events and matters for a period of time. Although the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) was born in that year, Muslims did not take it as a starting point for their calendar because it did not relate to the matter of faith and Islam.

For this reason, they also did not take the year of the prophethood’s beginning as a starting point for the Muslims’ calendar because the number of Muslims on that day did not exceed three persons. Hence, none of these events were considered significant enough to be taken as a starting point for timing and history. There must be a monumental and paramount issue to be considered as such.

However, in the first year of the Hijri years, Muslims achieved a great and magnificent victory. An independent government was established, Muslims were united, their powers and elements centralized in one place, and a free environment devoid of oppression and repression. Hence, they made that year (i.e., the year in which the great Prophet’s migration was realized) the beginning of their calendar, referring to it, even now, for everything that happens, whether good or bad, to determine its date of occurrence.

From this point, one thousand four hundred and nine years have passed since the year of the Prophet’s migration (peace and blessings be upon him) from Mecca to Medina.”

The Prophetic Hijra as a Basis for the Timeline of All Muslims

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family, has personally established the Hijri calendar. Ignoring or neglecting this calendar, and choosing another instead, constitutes a disregard for the Sunnah of the noble Messenger of Islam, peace be upon him and his family, and opposes what he has outlined for Muslims in this regard. Having a specific, consistent date (composed of year, month, and day) in human social life is not just necessary, but of utmost importance and vitality, to ensure the continuous movement and functioning of societal life due to the presence of a constant and known temporal measure for events and occurrences.

This is a fact so evident that there is no need to establish proof for it, as arguing for it is like arguing for self-evident matters.

Would organizing treaties, political and military pacts, agreements, economic contracts, the transferring and payment of bonds, commercial transactions, debt settlements, and the writing of familial letters be practical without mentioning a specific date? Certainly not, without a doubt.

When some companions asked the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, about the reason behind the different phases of the moon, and why it appears as a crescent at times and full at others, and then returns to its initial crescent form, the divine revelation descended, clarifying some of the wisdom behind this natural phenomenon. Allah Almighty said: “Say, ‘They are measurements of time for the people…'”

5/5 - (1 vote)
Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.