Take a fresh look at your lifestyle.

His Eminence Abdul Adhim Hassani

0 85

Intro:

His Eminence Abdul Adhim Hassani, peace be upon him, is an illustrious figure endowed with immense scholarly, practical, and jihadist virtues that, unfortunately, have not been fully recognized and appreciated as they rightfully deserve.

In the introduction of the wisdom script of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, several aspects such as his familial background, scholarly and practical attributes, migration to the city of Rey, and his demise in this city have been diligently examined.[1]

One: Lineage

The lineage of His Eminence Abdul Adhim Hassani, peace be upon him, through four intermediaries, reaches the grand progeny of the Messenger of Allah, may peace be upon him and his family, and the divine household. Ahmad bin Ali Najashi, a pillar in the science of biographical evaluation, writes concerning the nobility of this great personality: “When his body was uncovered for ablution, a written account was found in his garment pocket, declaring his lineage as follows: I am Abu al-Qasim, Abdul Adhim son of Abdullah son of Ali son of Hasan son of Zaid son of Ali son of Hasan son of Ali son of Abi Talib.”[2]

Based on this version from Rajal al-Najashi, there are five intermediaries between him and Imam Hasan, peace be upon him. However, in authentic versions of the book, there is no intermediary between “Zaid” – his third grandfather – and Imam Hasan, peace be upon him.

Therefore, the ancestors of His Holiness Abdul Adhim peace be upon him are as follows:

  1. Abdullah bin Ali: His father, named Abdullah, and his mother, Fatima, daughter of Uqba bin Qais [4]. Abdullah was born during the lifetime of his grandfather, Hasan bin Zaid, and was raised by his grandfather after the demise of his father, Ali, in prison.[5]

From Abdullah, as transmitted, five sons and according to another transmission, nine sons remained [6], one of whom was His Holiness Abdul Adhim, peace be upon him.

  1. Ali bin Hassan: His first grandfather, Ali, also known as “Sadeed” [7], along with a group of Husaini Sayyids, rebelled against the Abbasids during the caliphate of Mansoor. They were arrested and transferred to Baghdad, where he later passed away in prison.[8]
  2. Hasan bin Zaid: His second grandfather, Hasan, was a sole son of Zaid and was renowned among the nobilities of his era, particularly within the Hashemite clan for his generosity, magnanimity, and services to the underprivileged. Appointed as the governor of Medina by Mansoor Abbasi, he later fell out of favor, was imprisoned[9], and eventually left this world at the age of eighty in the year 168 AH.[10]
  3. Zaid the son of Imam Hasan, peace be upon him: Zaid holds a distinctive position in his illustrious lineage, connecting him directly to the radiant legacy of Imam Hasan, peace be upon him.

The honorable third grandfather of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, is Zaid, the esteemed son of Imam Hasan Mujtaba, peace be upon him. Zaid was the custodian of the endowments of the Prophet of Allah, may peace be upon him and his family, and has been extolled for his magnificent stature, natural dignity, self-respect, and prolific acts of benevolence. Poets have sung praises of him, and people from all walks of life sought his grace and blessings [11]. He closed his eyes to this world at the age of one hundred [12] and was laid to rest in a place called “Hajez”, a short distance from Medina.[13]

A fleeting glance at the biography of the ancestors and the family of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, reveals that this family was adorned with two prominent characteristics:

Firstly: A relentless struggle and combat against the oppression and arrogant dominion prevailing in the Islamic society. Such was the extent of their struggle that the father of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, departed from this world in prison, having never seen his father. His grandfather also spent a portion of his life in incarceration.

Secondly: Their life was marked by intrinsic dignity, honorable nature, and devoted service to the deprived. The conferment of the title “Al-Sayed Al-Kareem” upon Abdul Adhim is rooted in these noble familial traits of this magnificent personality.[14]

Two: Birth and Demise Date

The exact dates of birth and demise of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, are not clearly established;[15] however, in some later sources, it is mentioned:

His Eminence Shah Abdul Azim, who was also known by the kunyas Abul Qasim and Abul Fath, was born on Thursday, the fourth of Rabi al-Thani in the year 173 AH, during the era of Harun al-Rashid, in Medina at his grandfather’s, Imam Hasan Mujtaba’s house, peace be upon him.

He left this transient world after living 79 years, six months, and eleven lunar days, on Friday, the fifteenth of Shawwal al-Mukarram in the year 252 AH, during the era of Al-Mu’tazz billah Abbasi.[16]

Moreover, in some later sources like the book ‘Nazhat al-Abrar’ by Sayyid Musa Barzanji, ‘Manaqib al-Itrah’ by Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Fahd Helli and the history by Nur ad-Din Muhammad al-Samhudi, it is conveyed that the birth of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, was on Thursday, the fourth of Rabi al-Thani in the year 173 AH, in Medina and his demise was on the fifteenth of Shawwal, 252 AH.[17]

It’s worth mentioning that in the ancient and credible sources, the exact dates of his birth and demise have not been reported, and the aforementioned sources are not well-known, making these reports unreliable; however, in the noble book “Al-Kafi”, a narration has been cited from His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, through Hisham bin Hakam. The demise of Hisham bin Hakam was in the year 199 AH, or before that.[18] It is assumed that His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, was less than twenty years old at the time of transmitting this narration. Therefore, his birth must have been in the year 180 AH, or before that.[20]

Also, based on a narration from Imam Hadi, peace be upon him, which considers the reward of visiting the tomb of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, equal to visiting the mausoleum of the Master of Martyrs, peace be upon him, it should be stated that he passed away during the time of Imam Hadi, peace be upon him, and before his martyrdom. Considering that the era of his imamate was from 220 to 254 AH, the demise of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, occurred before 254 AH.

Therefore, although based on the aforementioned clues, the probability of the birth of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, being in 173 AH, and his demise in 252 AH, is logical and reasonable, it still requires validation from a credible source.

On the other hand, considering that the fourth of Rabi al-Thani, as the birthdate, and the fifteenth of Shawwal, as the demise date of His Eminence Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, have been popularized, commemorating and paying tribute to his spiritual stature on these mentioned days is commendable.[21]

Three: In the Presence of the Imams

Based on what has transpired in the history of the birth and demise of Hazrat Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, he experienced the lifetime of five Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them – namely Imam Kazim to Imam Askari, peace be upon them; however, this does not mean that he managed to meet all of them or narrate something from all of them.

What is certain and confirmed is that he experienced the presence of Imam Jawad and Imam Hadi, peace be upon them, and narrated numerous hadiths from them, some of which are mentioned in this article. Also, if we trust the narration of the book Al-Ikhtisas attributed to Sheikh Mufid, Hazrat Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, also experienced the presence of Imam Reza, peace be upon him, and narrated from him [22].

It is noteworthy that according to some versions of Rijal al-Tusi, Hazrat Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, is considered among the companions of Imam Askari [23], and in the book Shariah al-Tasmiya by Mirdamad, it is also mentioned that he experienced the presence of Imam Askari, peace be upon him; [24] but no narration from that Imam has reached us through him.

Four: Scientific Magnificence

To prove the scientific magnificence of Hazrat Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, it is enough to know that the infallible Imam referred people to him for solving their religious problems and finding answers to their doctrinal and practical questions.

Saheb Ibn Abbad, in a treatise he wrote describing the life of Hazrat Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, [25] has mentioned: Abu Turab Ruyani narrated that he heard Abu Hammad Razi say: “I reached Imam Hadi, peace be upon him, in Samarra and asked him questions about what is permissible and forbidden. The Imam answered my questions, and when I wanted to say goodbye to him, he said to me:

‘O Abu Hammad! If something in your religious affairs becomes difficult for you during your lifetime, ask Abdul Adhim Ibn Abdullah Hasani and convey my salutations to him.’ [26]

This statement clearly shows that Hazrat Abdul Azim, peace be upon him, was a competent jurist in his era, who, based on the principles and rules he had from the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them, could extract the pure Islamic viewpoints in various doctrinal and practical areas and answer people’s questions.

Therefore, he was not only a narrator of the hadiths of the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them; rather, he was among the great scholars of the prophetic household who, after the infallibles, had the ability to answer scientific questions, and his scientific competence was approved and verified by Imam Hadi, peace be upon him.

Five: Writings

The late Najashi, in his book on men of knowledge – which is about Shia authors – has mentioned Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hasani (Peace be upon him) and attributed the book “Sermons of Amir al-Mu’minin” (Peace be upon him) to him.[28]

It is quite possible that Sayyid Razi (May Allah’s mercy be upon him), while compiling Nahj al-Balaghah, might have used this book and it could be one of the primary sources of Nahj al-Balaghah! At the end of the biography of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), Najashi connects his chain of narrators to him, through his teacher Ibn Nuh.[29]

Sheikh Tusi, too, in his book “Al-Fihrist” – which introduces Shia authors and their books – mentions Hazrat Abdul Adhim and says, “He has a book.” He then traces his chain of narrators back to Ahmad bin Abi Abdullah Barqi, who narrated hadith from Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him).[30]

Sahib Ibn Abbad, in the life story of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), has mentioned, “He has a book called ‘Book of Day and Night.’”[31]

Six: Spiritual Greatness

The most important indicator of the spiritual greatness and internal status of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) is the equivalence of the virtue of visiting his tomb with the virtue of visiting the Master of Martyrs.

The Sheikh of narrators, Saduq, has quoted from Muhammad bin Yahya Attar – who is one of the residents of Rey – saying that he reached Imam Hadi (Peace be upon him) and the Imam asked, “Where have you been?”

I said, “I visited Hussein bin Ali (Peace be upon him).” Imam Hadi (Peace be upon him) said:

“Know that if you visit the tomb of Abdul Adhim in your city, it is as if you have visited Hussein bin Ali (Peace be upon him).”[32]

To explain this narration and elucidate the spiritual greatness of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), it is necessary to investigate topics such as the virtue of visiting Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him), the meaning of equating the visitation of Hazrat Abdul Adhim with the visitation of Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him), and the wisdom behind it.

A – The Virtue of Visiting Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him)

In the traditions of the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them), numerous virtues, effects, and blessings are elucidated for visiting Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him). These include the forgiveness of sins, the prayers of the angels, the elongation of one’s life, increase in sustenance, the elimination of sorrow, the joy of the heart, the transformation of evils into good, the conversion of misfortune into prosperity, and entitlement to the right of intercession.

Additionally, some hadiths rank the merit of visiting Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him) higher than performing Hajj, and even assert that its reward is greater than performing a thousand Hajjs and a thousand Umrahs.[33]

B – The Purpose of Equating the Visit of Abdul Adhim with Visiting the Master of Martyrs (Peace be upon him)

The question arises: Based on the aforementioned hadith, can the visitation of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) universally substitute the visitation of Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him), or does it possess such virtue under specific circumstances? In a nutshell, is the equivalency of visiting Abdul Adhim and Imam Hussain absolute or conditional?

Undoubtedly, the intention of Imam Hadi (Peace be upon him) in the quoted hadith is not to diminish the virtues of visiting Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him) or to exaggerate the merits of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him).

Therefore, in response to these question, it could be stated: The equivalency in the virtue of visiting Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) and Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him) is conditional, bound to a particular political environment where the followers of the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them) lived during a historical period, a time overshadowed by significant distress in the Islamic world and where the Shia community endured some of the harshest historical epochs under the rule of individuals like Mutawakkil, Mu’tazz, and Mu’tamid Abbasi.

In such circumstances, Imam Hadi (Peace be upon him), aiming to prevent the risks threatening the Shia from the ruling governments, considered the virtue of visiting Hazrat Abdul Adhim comparable to visiting Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him).

To elucidate further, for those prepared to undertake risks for visiting Imam Hussain (Peace be upon him), the visitation of Hazrat Abdul Adhim holds a reward equivalent to that of visiting the Imam, and the sanctuary of Hazrat Abdul Adhim is deemed a branch of the Master of Martyrs’ sanctuary. This in itself is a tremendous virtue, indicative of Abdul Azim’s elevated status and spiritual greatness in the eyes of the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them).

C – The Wisdom Behind Equating the Visitation of Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) with Visiting the Master of Martyrs

The equality in virtue between the visitation of Hazrat Abdul Adhim and the Master of Martyrs – although under specific conditions – is undoubtedly imbued with wisdom. We might not fully grasp the wisdom behind it; however, the mystery and essence of this significant virtue should be sought in the scholarly, practical, and jihad-oriented persona of that noble being.

Among the descendants of the Imams, there are illustrious personalities, but concerning none of them, at least to our knowledge, has it been conveyed that their visitation equals that of visiting the Master of Martyrs.

Therefore, Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) must possess qualities and a status that radiate the light of the Husseini sanctuary from his sacred tomb, and the heartwarming fragrance of the Master of Martyrs should be perceptible there.

It is worth noting that other hadiths have also been narrated concerning the virtue of visiting Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), such as what has been conveyed by Shahid Thani in the commentary of Khulasat al-Aqwal from Imam Reza (Peace be upon him), stating:

“Whoever visits Abdul Azim’s tomb, it becomes obligatory upon Allah to admit him to paradise.” [34]

In another hadith from the Imam, it is said:

“Whoever is unable to visit me, let him visit my brother Abdul Adhim Hassani in Rey.” [35]

However, these hadiths, in addition to questions regarding their transmission and the weakness of their chains of narration, also face historical scrutiny. This is because Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) lived many years after the martyrdom of Imam Reza (Peace be upon him), unless we say that these are among the Imam’s foretelling’s of the unseen.

Seven: Narrations of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him)

A noteworthy section of the books authored regarding the biography of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) is dedicated to narrations that have been included in their chains of transmission, such as:

“Jannat al-Naeem,” [36] sixty narrations; “Ruh wa Rayhan,” [37] 57 narrations; “Al-Tadhkirah al-Azimiyya,” [38] forty narrations; “Abdul Adhim al-Hasani, His Life and His Narrations” [39], 78 narrations; “Musnad Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani Peace be upon him” – which has been published in the collection of the congress works of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) – one hundred and twenty narrations. [40]

However, it should be noted that what has been pointed out does not encompass all the narrations of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him). Sahib ibn Abbad described him as “abundant in hadith and narration” and in his brief treatise, he characterized him as follows:

A person of piety and religion, a known worshiper characterized by trustworthiness and truthful speech, knowledgeable in religious matters, affirming monotheism and justice, and abundant in hadith and narration. [41]

[Abdul Adhim,] was a pious and religious individual. He was devoted to worship and was renowned for his honesty and truthfulness. He was knowledgeable in religious affairs, believed in monotheism and justice, and narrated numerous hadiths and traditions [from the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them)].

As previously mentioned, the book “Khutab Amir al-Mu’minin” and the book “Yawm wa Laylah” are among his compositions, and based on this, it should be said: many narrations of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) have not reached us for various reasons.

Eight: Migration to Rey

The details concerning the reasons for the migration of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) to the city of Rey are unclear. However, it can be said that the noble family’s historical struggles on the one hand, and the scholarly and jihadist personality of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) and his close relationship with the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them) on the other, made him a target of the ruling government during the final years of his life. Hence, he chose to live in secrecy, perhaps at the guidance of Imam Hadi (Peace be upon him), disguising himself as a courier and anonymously left his homeland, passing through various cities until he settled in a place called “Sarban” [42] in Rey.

He resided in the house of a follower of the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them) in a neighborhood referred to as “Sikat al-Mawali.” He fasted during the days, worshiped during the nights, and occasionally left the house where he resided in secrecy to visit a grave, now located opposite his mausoleum, stating: this is the grave of a man from the descendants of Musa bin Ja’far (Peace be upon him).

It is not clear how many years Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) resided in Rey. What is certain is that he stayed in the city long enough for most of the Shia of Rey to gradually become acquainted with him [43], and considering that he was intensely pursued and that people’s interactions with him took quite some time, it could be said: probably, he spent several years of the end of his life in Rey. Moreover, the frequency of people coming and going indicates his cultural and political activities.

Nine: Cause of Death

Based on the reports by Najashi and Sahib bin Abbad, Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) passed away due to illness and natural causes. [44] When they undressed his noble body for the ritual washing, a piece of paper was found in his pocket, where his lineage up to Amir al-Mu’minin (Peace be upon him) was written. [45]

However, in the book Al-Shajarat Al-Mubarakah, regarding the cause of Hazrat Abdul Azim’s (Peace be upon him) death, it is stated:

“He was killed in Rey, and his shrine there is famous and well-known.” [46]

Also, in the book Al-Muntakhab Tarikh, it is mentioned:

“It is said: Among those who were buried alive from the descendants of Ali bin Abi Talib is Abdul Adhim Hassani in Rey.” [47]

In another report attributed to the book Mushajjarat Ibn Mu’ayyad, it is claimed that he was martyred by poisoning. [48]

Regarding the mentioned reports, there are several notable points:

1. The report by Sahib bin Abbad and Najashi is credible and dates back to the fourth and fifth centuries Hijri. Therefore, it takes precedence over later reports.

2. The mentioned reports indicate that apparently, until the fifth century Hijri, the martyrdom of Hazrat Abdul Adhim was not a discussed topic, otherwise, it would have been referred to in these reports.

3. If we can trust the report of the book Al-Shajarat Al-Mubarakah, the consensus among this report, the report of Mushajjarat Ibn Mu’ayyad, and also the mentioned credible sources, is that he became ill due to poisoning and was martyred.

4. Considering the family background of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) and the uprising of the Alawis in Tabaristan, if the corrupt rulers of the Abbasid dynasty had known about his hiding place in Rey, they would certainly have martyred him. It’s not unlikely that due to frequent visits with him during his stay in Rey, they might have found out about this.

5. Comparing the visitation of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) to the visitation of Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him) could be evidence of his martyrdom.

Therefore, although there is no definitive reason for the martyrdom of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), there is also no strong reason to deny his martyrdom; rather, considering the third, fourth, and fifth points, accepting the principle of martyrdom is not unlikely.

Ten: The tomb of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) with the reference to the Prophet (Peace be upon him and his family)

Based on the report of Sahib bin Abbad (326-385 AH)[49], on the night of Hazrat Abdul Adhim’s (Peace be upon him) demise, one of the Shiites of Rey saw in a dream the Prophet of Allah(Peace be upon him and his family) who told him: “Tomorrow, a man from my descendants will be brought from the path of the loyal ones, and they will bury him in the garden of Abdul Jabbar bin Abdul Wahhab, next to the apple tree.” That person went to the owner of the garden to buy that tree and its location. The owner of the garden asked him: “Why do you want this tree and its location?” He narrated his dream. The owner of the garden said: “I had a similar dream, and for this reason, I have endowed the location of this tree and this entire garden to the Sayyids and Shiites to bury their deceased.” [50]

According to this report, considering that gardens at that time were usually vast, it can be guessed that within a significant radius around the holy shrine of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), it was endowed for the burial of Sayyids and followers of the Ahl al-Bayt (Peace be upon them).

References:

[1] It’s worth mentioning that to introduce the personality of Hazrat Abdul Azim, a commemorative congress was held in the hall of Sheikh Saduq of his holy shrine on June 13, 2003, and the collective works of this congress were published in 29 volumes.

[2] Rijal al-Najashi: Vol. 2, p. 67, No. 651

[3] Reference: Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith: Vol. 10, p. 46, No. 6580

[4] Transferred by Talibiya: p. 157 quoted from: Recognition of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani (Peace be upon him) and the city of Rey / Collection of Published Articles: p. 72 (Article “Familiarity with Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) and the sources of his biography”, Reza Ostadi), The Migrants of the Family of Abu Talib: p. 235.

[5] Reference: Secret of the Alawi Sequence: p. 24, Umdat al-Talib: p. 94, Collection of Articles of the Congress of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him): Vol. 3, p. 50 (Article “A general review of the narrations of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani (Peace be upon him)”, Mohammad Kazem Rahman Setaiesh).

[6] Reference: Collection of Articles of the Congress of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him): Vol. 3, p. 50 (Article “A general review of the narrations of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani (Peace be upon him)”, Mohammad Kazem Rahman Setaiesh).

[7] Reference: Umdat al-Talib: p. 93 and 70.

[8] Secret of the Alawi Sequence: p. 22, Umdat al-Talib: p. 70 and 94.

[9] History of Islam, Dhahabi: Vol. 13, p. 414.

[10] Secret of the Alawi Sequence: p. 21, Umdat al-Talib: p. 70.

[11] Reference: Al-Irshad: Vol. 2, p. 21.

[12] Secret of the Alawi Sequence: p. 22, Umdat al-Talib: p. 69, It’s also mentioned 90 and 95 years old.

[13] Secret of the Alawi Sequence: p. 20.

[14] Sheikh Rajabali Nikoogoyan has narrated that he visited Hazrat Abdul Adhim in the spiritual realm and asked him, “How did you attain this status?” He replied, “Through benevolence towards people. I used to transcribe the Quran, and I would make those copies available to people who sought them, receiving a modest wage, which I used for charity.” (Ref: The Alchemy of Love: p. 210 also, Ref: the same, Chapter Seven “The Benevolence of God’s Saints”).

The writer says: The nobility and benevolence of that magnanimous figure continue in the interspace world; I have some memories about this that will come in the book of the most instructive memories, Allahwilling.

[15] In the past, in the common custom of people, the word “Shah” in many cases was used as a sign of homage and respect. They used to call Amir al-Muminin Ali (Peace be upon him), “Shah of Men,” and Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him), “Shah of Martyrs” or “Shah of all Martyrs.” Concerning Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him), this word is seen in the books of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Hijri (not in the books before that), and this word is not part of his name. (Ref: Recognition of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani (Peace be upon him) and the city of Rey / Collection of Published Articles: p. 73 (Article “Familiarity with Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) and the sources of his biography”, Reza Ostadi).

[16] Ref: Collection of Papers of the Congress in honor of Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him): Vol. 3, p. 181-185 (Thesis “Araza al-Ikhwan: Travelogue of Teacher Habib Abadi to the Shrine of Hazrat Abdul Adhim and the city of Rey”, Mohammad Ali Teacher Habib Abadi.

[17] Recognition of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani (Peace be upon him) and the city of Rey / Collection of Handwritten and Stone Thesis: p. 273 (Thesis “The Supreme Qualities”, Sheikh Javad Shah Abdul Azimi).

[18] Al-Kafi: Vol. 1, p. 424, No. 63.

[19] Ref: Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith: Vol. 19, p. 270, No. 13329.

[20] Ref: Recognition of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hassani (Peace be upon him) and the city of Rey / Collection of Published Articles: p. 67 (Article “Familiarity with Hazrat Abdul Adhim (Peace be upon him) and the sources of his biography”, Reza Ostadi).

[21] It’s worth mentioning that by referring to Hadith and historical sources, it becomes clear that there are different reports regarding the birth and death dates of many Islamic leaders, and their exact and definitive dates are not clear, and the commemoration of their birth or death days is based on the selection of a popular opinion or one of the reports.

[22] But this narration cannot be relied upon (Ref: Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith: Vol. 10, p. 49, No. 6580), and assuming its acceptance, it is probable that by “Abu al-Hasan,” Imam Hadi (Peace be upon him) is meant, and the word “al-Rida” might have been added by the narrator or transcriber.

[23] Rijal al-Tusi: p. 401, No. 5875

[24] The Law of Naming: p45. It should be noted that based on the narration from the Imam about the virtue of visiting Hazrat Abdul Adhim peace be upon him, he passed away during the Imamate of Imam Hadi peace be upon him. Therefore, he cannot be among the companions of the Imam peace be upon him and during the Imamate of that holy person. It is also interesting to consider the possibility that the title ‘Askari’ may have been used for Imam Hadi peace be upon him, as stated in the narration of Saduq in Thawab al-A’mal about the virtue of visiting Hazrat Abdul Adhim peace be upon him, where he has been referred to with the military title, and this has led to the assumption that Hazrat Abdul Adhim peace be upon him might have been among the companions of his son, who is known as Askari.

[25] This treatise was written in 516 AH by one of the Bani Babwayh (r. Ref. Conclusion of Mustadrak al-Wasail: vol 4 p404, sec 173).

[26] Recognition of the name of Hazrat Abdul Adhim Hasani peace be upon him and Sahari / Collection of handwritten and stone treatises: p 23 (Treatise “Treatise on the Virtue of Abdul Adhim peace be upon him” by Saheb ibn Habib).

[28] Rijal al-Najashi: vol 2 p66 sec 651

[29] Rijal al-Najashi: vol 2 p67 sec 651

[30] Al-Fihrist: p193 sec 548″

[31] . Recognition of His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him and Shahr Ray / Collection of handwritten and stone thesis: p 21 (Thesis “Thesis on the Virtue of Abdul Adhim peace be upon him”, Sahib bin Abbad)

[32] The reward of deeds: p 124h 1.

[33]. For familiarity with the text of the hadiths referred to, see: Encyclopedia of Imam Hussein peace be upon him: Vol 11 (Third and fourth chapters of the thirteenth part) and for the necessary explanations, see: Ibid: Vol 11p101-111 (Research about the value of visiting Imam Hussein peace be upon him)

[34] Hashiyat Al-Shahid Al-Thani on Khulasat al-Aqwal: p 191 h 289, Collection of Congress articles of His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him: Vol 3 p 42 (Article “Visiting His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him”, Reza Ostadi)

[35] Collection of Congress articles of His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him: Vol 3 p 43 (Article “Visiting His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him”, Reza Ostadi)

[36] Writing of Mulla Ismail Fadaei Kazari (d. 1263 AH)

[37] Writing of Mulla Muhammad Baqir Kojuri (d. 1313 AH)

[38] Writing of Muhammad Ibrahim Kalbasi (d. 1362 AH)

[39] Writing of Azizullah Atardi (Contemporary)

[40] See: Musnad of His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him p 19

[41] Recognition of His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him and Shahr Ray / Collection of handwritten and stone thesis: p 21 (Thesis “Thesis on the Virtue of Abdul Adhim peace be upon him”, Sahib bin Abbad)

[42] It is reported that the caravan at that time was one of the most beautiful recreational areas in the world and a royal road that divided the city of Ray into two parts, and in the middle of it, a river flowed. Next to that river, intertwined green trees, and among the trees, markets were surrounded by trees. (See: Mo’jam al-Buldan: Vol 3 p 205)

[43] This has been reported by Najashi and Sahib bin Abbad.

[44] Men of Najashi: Vol 2 p 67, No. 651, Recognition of His Holiness Abdul Adhim and Shahr Ray / Collection of handwritten and stone thesis: p 22 (Thesis “Thesis on the Virtue of Abdul Adhim peace be upon him”, Sahib bin Abbad)

[45] See: p 11

[46] The Blessed Tree, Fakhr Razi (d. 606 AH): p 64. It should be noted that although some have doubted its attribution to him due to Razi not mentioning this book in the list of his works, handwritten versions of the book explicitly attribute it to Fakhr Razi, and its text also indicates that the author was a fully informed scholar of the Prophet’s family genealogy. Therefore, genealogists consider it among the credible resources in genealogy science.

[47] Al-Muntakhab, Tarihi: p 7. It should be noted that many reports of this book are weak and incorrect, and therefore its unique reports are not reliable.

[48] Recognition of His Holiness Abdul Adhim Hassani peace be upon him and Shahr Ray / Collection of books and thesis: p 141 (“Life of His Holiness Abdul Adhim and adjacent Imamzadeh”, Mohammad Razi Sharif)

[49] It should be noted that this report also appears, with slight differences, in Men of Najashi (372-450 AH), and the present text is derived from both sources.

[50] Men of Najashi: Vol 2 p 66-67, No. 651; Recognition of His Holiness Abdul Adhim peace be upon him and Shahr Ray / Collection of handwritten and stone thesis: p 22 (Thesis “Thesis on the Virtue of Abdul Adhim peace be upon him”, Sahib bin Abbad)

Rate this post
Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.