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Event of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah

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The Significance of Dhu al-Hijjah in Islamic History

Dhu al-Hijjah, the twelfth and final month of the Islamic calendar, is a period filled with profound spiritual significance and historical importance. This sacred month is renowned for hosting some of the most crucial events in Islamic history, making it a time of reflection, devotion, and celebration for Muslims around the globe.

One of the most prominent features of Dhu al-Hijjah is the observance of the Hajj pilgrimage. This annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, representing a pivotal moment of spiritual renewal and unity for Muslims. During Hajj, millions of Muslims from all corners of the world gather to perform rituals that date back to the time of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham).

The month also features Eid al-Adha, also known as the Festival of Sacrifice. This major Islamic holiday commemorates the willingness of Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismail in obedience to Allah’s command. Eid al-Adha is marked by special prayers, the act of Qurbani (sacrifice of an animal), and communal feasts, emphasizing themes of sacrifice, charity, and gratitude.

Another significant event in Dhu al-Hijjah is Eid al-Ghadir, celebrated on the 18th of the month. Eid al-Ghadir commemorates the day when the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) declared Imam Ali (PBUH) as his successor at Ghadir Khumm. This event is particularly significant for Muslims, as it highlights the leadership and spiritual authority of Imam Ali.

The Day of Mubahala, observed on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah, is another important occasion. This day marks the event when the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) engaged in a mubahala (mutual invocation of God’s curse on the liars) with the Christians of Najran, to prove the truth of his message. This event underscores the importance of standing firm in one’s faith and the divine validation of the Prophet’s mission.

Dhu al-Hijjah is also a time for Muslims to engage in additional acts of worship, such as fasting, prayer, and charity, especially during the first ten days, which are considered among the holiest days of the year.

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Occasion
DayYear
Anniversary of the marriage of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) to Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (peace be upon her)1st Dhu al-Hijjah2 AH
Removal of Abu Bakr from delivering the verses of Bara’ah, and appointment of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) in his place1st Dhu al-Hijjah9 AH
Birth of Ibn Abi al-Hadid; poet, literary figure, and commentator on Nahj al-Balagha1st Dhu al-Hijjah586 AH
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) entering Mecca during the Farewell Pilgrimage4th Dhu al-Hijjah10 AH
Battle of Sawiq; one of the battles of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) against the polytheists who attacked Medina5th Dhu al-Hijjah2 AH
Martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (peace be upon him); the ninth Imam of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) by the order of al-Mu’tasim al-Abbasi (according to a narration)5th Dhu al-Hijjah220 AH
Death of al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi; the second Abbasid Caliph who ordered the poisoning of Imam al-Sadiq (peace be upon him)6th Dhu al-Hijjah158 AH
Martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (peace be upon him), the ninth Imam of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) by the order of al-Mu’tasim al-Abbasi (according to a narration)6th Dhu al-Hijjah220 AH
Birth of Ibrahim, son of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)7th Dhu al-Hijjah8 AH
Death of Tawus al-Yamani; interpreter, reciter, jurist, narrator, and companion of Imam al-Sajjad (peace be upon him)7th Dhu al-Hijjah106 AH
Martyrdom of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (peace be upon him); the fifth Imam of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)7th Dhu al-Hijjah114 AH
Imprisonment of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (peace be upon him) in Basra7th Dhu al-Hijjah179 AH
Conspiracy to assassinate Imam al-Hussain (peace be upon him) in Mecca8th Dhu al-Hijjah60 AH
Imam al-Hussain (peace be upon him) heads from Mecca towards Iraq8th Dhu al-Hijjah60 AH
Uprising of Muslim ibn Aqeel in Kufa8th Dhu al-Hijjah60 AH
Confrontation between the Abbasid army and the army of Sahib Fakh and his martyrdom with his companions8th Dhu al-Hijjah169 AH
Attack of the Qarmatians on Mecca and the pilgrims, and theft of the Black Stone8th Dhu al-Hijjah317 AH
Day of Arafah9th Dhu al-Hijjah
Acceptance of the repentance of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) (according to some narrations)9th Dhu al-Hijjah
Incident of closing the doors of the medina masjid; one of the virtues of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) as his was the only not closed.9th Dhu al-Hijjah
Martyrdom of Muslim ibn Aqeel and Hani ibn Urwa in Kufa by the order of Ibn Ziyad9th Dhu al-Hijjah60 AH

OccasionDayYear
Eid al-Adha; one of the major Islamic holidays, on this day Allah commanded Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismail (peace be upon them)10th Dhu al-Hijjah
Martyrdom of Abdullah al-Mahd ibn al-Hasan al-Muthanna and a group of the sons of Imam Hasan (peace be upon him)10th Dhu al-Hijjah145 AH
Death of Mirza Jawad al-Maliki al-Tabrizi; mystic, ethics teacher, and author of the book “Al-Muraqabat”11th Dhu al-Hijjah1344 AH
Miracle of the splitting of the moon by the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family)13th Dhu al-Hijjah5th year of Prophethood
Signing of the second treaty of Aqabah with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) by the people of Yathrib in Mecca13th Dhu al-Hijjah13th year of Prophethood
Birth of Sayyid Ali al-Qadhi al-Tabataba’i; mystic, scholar, and ethics teacher in the Najaf seminary13th Dhu al-Hijjah1282 AH
Death of Sheikh Muhammad Taqi al-Shirazi, known as Mirza the Second; a Marja and political leader during Iraq’s independence movement against British occupation13th Dhu al-Hijjah1338 AH
Death of Sheikh Agha Buzurg al-Tehrani; jurist, narrator, historian, and author of “Al-Dhari’ah”; the most important encyclopedia of the works and biographies of the followers of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)13th Dhu al-Hijjah1389 AH
Granting of Fadak to Lady al-Zahra (peace be upon her) by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) after the revelation of the verse “And give the relative his right14th Dhu al-Hijjah7 AH
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) leaving Mecca towards Medina during the Farewell Pilgrimage14th Dhu al-Hijjah10 AH
Death of Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani; historian, literary figure, and author of “Maqatil al-Talibiyyin” and “Al-Aghani”14th Dhu al-Hijjah356 AH
Birth of Imam al-Hadi; the tenth Imam of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)15th Dhu al-Hijjah212 AH
End of the flood of Noah (peace be upon him)18th Dhu al-Hijjah
The fire of Nimrod turns cold and safe for Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) (according to some narrations)18th Dhu al-Hijjah
Revelation of the verse of proclamation regarding the succession and guardianship of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him)18th Dhu al-Hijjah10 AH
Eid al-Ghadir; the greatest Eid of the Muslims, where the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) appointed the Commander of the Faithful Ali (peace be upon him) as his successor and Imam by the command of Allah18th Dhu al-Hijjah10 AH
Revelation of the verse of completion concerning the event of Ghadir and the guardianship of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him)18th Dhu al-Hijjah10 AH
Pledge of allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) as Caliph18th Dhu al-Hijjah35 AH
Birth of Sheikh Murtadha al-Ansari; jurist, and one of the most famous teachers of jurisprudence and principles in the Najaf seminary, author of “Farā’id al-Usul” and “al-Makasib”18th Dhu al-Hijjah1214 AH
Wahhabi attack on Karbala, killing followers of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), and destroying and looting the shrine of Imam al-Hussain (peace be upon him)18th Dhu al-Hijjah1216 AH
Birth of Imam al-Kadhim (peace be upon him); the seventh Imam of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) (according to a narration)20th Dhu al-Hijjah128 AH
Death of al-Akhund al-Khurasani; a Marja, and author of “Kifayat al-Usul”20th Dhu al-Hijjah1329 AH
Death of Sayyid Abdul Karim al-Ridhawi al-Kashmiri; jurist, mystic, and teacher in the seminaries of Najaf and Qom20th Dhu al-Hijjah1419 AH
Martyrdom of Maytham al-Tammar; companion of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba, and Imam al-Hussain (peace be upon them)22nd Dhu al-Hijjah60 AH
Death of Sheikh Abbas al-Qummi; narrator, historian, preacher, and author of “Mafatih al-Jinan”; the most famous book of supplications for the followers of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)22nd Dhu al-Hijjah1359 AH
Mubahala of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) with the Christians of Najran24th Dhu al-Hijjah9 AH
Revelation of the verse of Mubahala and the verse of purification in the virtue of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)24th Dhu al-Hijjah9 AH
The incident of giving the ring as charity by the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) during his bowing in prayer24th Dhu al-Hijjah10/9 AH
Revelation of Surah al-Insan concerning the Commander of the Faithful, Lady al-Zahra, and al-Hasanain (peace be upon them)25th Dhu al-Hijjah
Acceptance of the Caliphate by the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) after the murder of Uthman25th Dhu al-Hijjah35 AH
Completion of the book “Tafsir Majma’ al-Bayan25th Dhu al-Hijjah1398 AH
Incident of al-Harrah, which ended with the suppression and killing of the people of Medina by the army of Yazid ibn Muawiya27th Dhu al-Hijjah63 AH
Birth of Imam al-Hadi (peace be upon him); the tenth Imam of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) (according to a narration)27th Dhu al-Hijjah212 AH
Death of Ali ibn Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (peace be upon him); one of the narrators of the hadiths of the Imams (peace be upon them)27th Dhu al-Hijjah233 AH
The caravan of Imam al-Hussain (peace be upon him) reaches the place of ‘Udhayb al-Hijanat near Kufa28th Dhu al-Hijjah60 AH
Death of Mulla Hadi al-Sabzewari; philosopher, sage, mystic, and poet during the Qajar era28th Dhu al-Hijjah1289 AH
Death of Abu Dharr al-Ghifari; one of the great companions of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him), and one of the loyal followers of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them)— Dhu al-Hijjah32 AH
Death of Zurara ibn A’yun; one of the companions of consensus, a close companion of Imams al-Baqir and al-Sadiq (peace be upon them), and one of the great jurists and theologians.— Dhu al-Hijjah148 AH
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