The Status of Lady Fatimah and Mary in Verses and Traditions.

Introduction

The Almighty Allah possesses inherent and essential sanctity, and certain individuals and objects attain relative sanctity based on their special affiliation with the Almighty and the manifestation of the divine within them. Among men, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) holds the highest sanctity after the Almighty God, and among women, Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her) holds this distinction.

The mysterious behavior and sayings of the noble Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his progeny) towards Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her), the Quranic verses that indirectly mention her or were revealed in her honor, and the words of the Infallibles (peace be upon them) clearly demonstrate the sanctity of this lady of Islam.

A comparison between Lady Zahra (peace be upon her) and Mary (peace be upon her) shows that if Mary (peace be upon her) was considered holy due to the qualities mentioned in the Quran, Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her) is even more so. The Quran mentions nearly twenty characteristics of Mary, and Islamic traditions have extended these to nearly forty characteristics. In the Quran, hadiths, and Islamic history, these forty characteristics are attributed to Fatimah (peace be upon her) at a higher level and with greater intensity.

This article enumerates the forty characteristics in Mary (peace be upon her) according to Quranic verses and Islamic traditions and demonstrates through the verses, traditions, and historical statements that these characteristics are also present in Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her).

Undoubtedly, every step-in understanding Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her) solidifies our steps in following and emulating this holy lady and serves Islam and Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her) in a way that eases and accelerates our passage over the bridge of Sirat. Unfortunately, the holders of grudges and malice in the early days of Islam, with the motive of neutralizing Fatimah Zahra’s (peace be upon her) struggles in defending the mission of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) and the Imamate of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), resorted to obscuring the sanctity of Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her). They not only failed to disseminate her sanctity but also concealed it. These grudges, fueled by ignorance and prejudice in the Muslim world, continued the obscuration of sanctity, leading to the introduction of heretical beliefs such as the polytheism of visiting graves and respecting the faithful after death, and many sacred Islamic artifacts in the Islamic world were lost.

The primary audience of this article is firstly, those Muslims who have yet to comprehend the sanctity of Fatimah Zahra (peace be upon her), and secondly, those who, after realizing her sanctity, have forgotten it due to political ambitions, and factional interests, or the pretense of intellectualism, or have relegated her sanctity to the background of diverse religious interpretations. Thirdly, the article addresses those who are eager to learn about the status of women in the Islamic faith.

The Legitimacy of Comparing Mary (PBUH) and Fatimah Zahra (PBUH)

One of the best ways to understand great personalities is through comparison and juxtaposition of their characters, opinions, behavior, and speech, as well as that of their friends and enemies. However, the question arises whether it is permissible and appropriate to compare Lady Mary (PBUH) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (PBUH)?

The answer to this question is affirmative, as, throughout history, the infallibles (PBUH) and saints have made comparisons between these two distinguished ladies on various occasions. The noble Prophet of Islam (PBUH) was the first to frequently compare Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) with Mary (PBUH), elucidating to Muslims and humanity the greatness and superiority of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) over Mary (PBUH)[1]. After him, it was Lady Zahra herself who asked her revered father: ‘O father, am I better or Mary? The Messenger of Allah replied: ‘You are the best in your community, and Mary is in hers ‘[2].

The most comparisons between Mary (PBUH) and Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) are found in the words of Imam Sadiq (PBUH) and Imam Baqir (PBUH)[3]. From the notables of early Islam, Umm Salama in the Prophet’s Mosque, after Abu Bakr’s insult, defended Zahra (PBUH) and said, ‘Fatimah is the best and chosen among women, the mother of the youths of paradise, and the counterpart and equal of Mary’[4]. Then Hassan ibn Thabit, who compared in poetry, said:

‘And indeed, Mary protected her chastity and brought forth Jesus like the full moon in a dark night. Similarly, Fatimah protected her chastity after her and brought forth two grandsons of the Prophet of guidance [5].

Hijab

Greater Eligibility of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) for Sanctity

Most of the descriptions that the Quran and traditions have listed for Mary (PBUH) also existed in Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), which will be discussed in the comparison of these two ladies. The astonishing and enigmatic behavior and words of the noble Prophet of Islam (PBUH) regarding Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) contain an important message for Muslims and humanity. This message is the declaration of the highest sanctity for Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) and sets her as a criterion for measuring the heartfelt faith and religiosity of Muslims. The Quran, with the astonishing expression ‘Nisaa’na’ (our women), in the verse of Mubahala, indicates that Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was the embodiment of the good qualities of heavenly women, with all their sanctity combined in her.

Regrettably, some Muslims in the early days of Islam, aware of her sanctity, not only failed to announce and establish the sanctity of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) to humanity but also concealed it. They, in a bid to preserve their usurped government, character assassinated and personally targeted Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), the most significant obstacle, and did not allow her deserved recognition as a holy figure to be known and accepted, overshadowed by Aisha’s promotion.

Unfortunately, their concealment and character assassination were not only an injustice to Islam but also to humanity. If today Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was known and venerated as a holy figure like Mary (PBUH) among all Muslims, she would be the highest symbol and proof of Islam’s respect for women. They deprived Muslims of the most important criterion for measuring religiosity and closeness to the noble Prophet (PBUH).

It’s surprising that today there is no Christian who does not recognize Mary as holy and does not mention her name. However, regrettably, some Muslims don’t even know that the noble Prophet (PBUH) had such a daughter?!

Among the followers of Christ, too, a deep divide has emerged. Protestants have many differences with Catholics, and there have been bloody disputes between them that continue to this day. Luther, as the leader of the Protestants who began his fight against the Catholics by demystifying the church and the clergy, never sought to deny the sanctity of Mary or Jesus but acknowledged and emphasized the highest sanctity of Mary. Despite the differences among Christians, they agree on the sanctity of Mary. Therefore, both Catholics and Protestants call out in distress: O Holy Mary.

In contrast, Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is more deserving and eligible for sanctity, but unfortunately, some, after the demise of the noble Prophet (PBUH), out of malice or ignorance, after usurping the caliphate and confining Imam Ali (PBUH), set about desanctifying Fatimah Zahra (PBUH).

More regrettably, today some Muslim intellectuals, even Shia, imitating Luther and supposedly seeking a religious reformation and Islamic Protestantism, have not maintained the limits of Luther, showing no belief in the sanctity of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH).

Comparison of Holy Fatimah (PBUH) with Holy Mary (PBUH)

1. Family Honor

Mary belonged to the Mathan family, descendants of Prophet David (PBUH), and her father, Imran, before the era of Herod[6], was from a family of prophecy and piety[7].

The honor of Mary’s family is evident in that Jesus (PBUH), one of the great prophets, was born in that family. Allah named a chapter in the Quran after this family and mentioned it several times. In the verse “Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of Imran over the worlds”[8], this family is introduced as one of the four chosen families.

Regarding the family honor of Fatimah Zahra, it’s a well-known matter for Muslims. According to a narration from Imam Reza (PBUH)[9] and other narrations[10], the family of the noble Prophet, among the four chosen families, is the family of Abraham mentioned in the verse.

Moreover, Allah explicitly mentioned the family of the Prophet in the verse of Purification[11] and referred to Fatimah’s family in the verse of ‘Blessed Tree’[12] and ‘Houses’ in “In houses that Allah has permitted to be raised and that His name is mentioned therein; praising Him within them in the mornings and the evenings”[13]. Allah revealed the chapter of Dahr or Hal Ata about the family of the Prophet (PBUH)[14]. Most importantly, Allah made the love of the family of Muhammad (Qurba) the reward for the Prophet’s mission, stating: “Say, [O Muhammad], ‘I do not ask you for any reward except the love of [my] family'”[15].

The author of Al-Ghadir has brought nine narrations from Sunni sources, stating that ‘Qurba’ in the mentioned verse refers to the family of the noble Prophet[16]. In narrations, even through Sunni sources, it is mentioned that the family of Muhammad are the truthful ones[17] in the noble verse “O you who have believed, fear Allah and be with those who are true”[18], and the Assabiqoon[19] in the verse “And the foremost in the race, the foremost in the race: Those are the ones brought near [to Allah]”[20], and the straight path[21] in the verse “Guide us to the straight path”[22]. Undoubtedly, the honor of a family is derived from the honor of the father, mother, and children, which we will discuss further.

2. Father

Imran, the father of Mary, passed away before her birth[23]. His name is mentioned in the Quran: “When the wife of Imran said…”[24]. According to Ibn Ishaq, his lineage traces back to Prophet David (PBUH) through fourteen intermediaries and was known as the prayer leader of the Israelites[25]. He was among God’s faithful and pure servants. Historians recognize him as one of the prominent religious leaders and priests of his time[26], but according to Imam Sadiq (PBUH) and Imam Baqir (PBUH), he was a prophet of his people[27].

However, the father of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), Muhammad bin Abdullah (PBUH), was the greatest of divine prophets[28] and the seal of them.

3. Mother

Mary’s mother, Hannah, the wife of Imran, was one of the devout women of her time[29]. Allah the Almighty has glorified her in the Quran: “When the wife of Imran said…”[30]. She was childless for about thirty years[31] until she prayed to Allah with a broken heart and then became pregnant by divine grace[32]. She vowed to dedicate her cherished child to serving the Holy Sanctuary: “Indeed, I have vowed to You what is in my womb, consecrated [for Your service]” and fulfilled her vow. Her honor becomes apparent when Allah declares He had graciously accepted her vow: “So her Lord accepted her with good acceptance”[33].

However, the mother of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is the venerable Khadijah (PBUH). The Quran alludes to her: “And He found you in need and made you independent”[34]. The late Majlisi, based on narrations, states that this noble verse refers to Khadijah[35]. Ibn Abbas in his interpretation of this verse says: “Allah found the Prophet poor, and people said the Prophet had no wealth; so, Allah made him rich and independent through the wealth of Khadijah.”[36]

The honor of Khadijah is such that she was the first woman to embrace Islam and affirm the Prophet’s mission (PBUH) and remained by his side until her last moment, being a supportive and compassionate partner. The Prophet said: “The religion of Islam was established with two things: the sword of Ali (PBUH) and the wealth of Khadijah (PBUH).”[37] She dedicated all her wealth to Islam and the Prophet’s mission (PBUH).

In narrations, it is mentioned that she is one of the four chosen women[38] and Paradise longs for her[39]. After her death, she will be in the company of Mary and Asiya[40].

She had the honor that the progeny of her last daughter, Fatimah (PBUH), was from heavenly sustenance[41], and during her pregnancy, while worried about the Prophet (PBUH), her child, Fatimah (PBUH), would speak to her from within and comfort her[42].

4. Father Informed of the Child’s Purity Before Birth

Allah informed of the purity of Mary before the conception and birth of her child, Jesus (PBUH), through the glad tidings of his birth, promising a healthy and blessed child who would heal the sick and revive the dead by God’s permission and be His messenger[43].

However, the birth of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was directly revealed to the noble Prophet of Islam (PBUH) during the Mi’raj and on earth, even including details of her creation from heavenly sustenance[44].

Allah informed the Prophet (PBUH) before the birth of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) that Khadijah’s womb was a vessel for Imamate. The Prophet once said to Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), ‘Indeed, the womb of your mother was a vessel for Imamate’[45].

5. Midwife and Nurse at Birth

At the time of birth, Mary’s midwife and her mother’s nurse were Elizabeth, the wife of Prophet Zechariah. However, the midwives for Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) were four heavenly women: Eve, Asiya, Kulthum, sister of Moses, and Mary[46].

6. Heavenly Naming

Mary was named by her mother: ‘Indeed, I have named her Mary’[47], and Mary means worshipper or servant.

However, the name Fatimah (PBUH) was designated by Allah Almighty. Imam Sadiq (PBUH) says, “Fatimah has nine names with Allah. They are: Fatimah, Siddiqah, Mubarakah, Taherah, Zakiyah, Radhiyah, Mardhiyyah, Muaddithah, and Zahra”[48].

Imam Baqir (PBUH) in another narration says: “When Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was born, AllahAlmighty inspired an angel to make this name (Fatimah) flow from the tongue of Muhammad (PBUH), so he named her Fatimah”[49].

From the Sunni tradition, Qastalani, Zarqani, Ghasani, Khateeb Baghdadi, and Hafiz Damishqi have admitted through narrations that the name Fatimah was from Allah[50].

7. Blessed and Noble Growth

Allah says about Mary, ‘And made her grow in a good manner’[51]. This means Mary and her offspring were granted growth and purity, and a life infused into each branch growing from her existence’s tree, free from the soul of Satan, impurity, desires, and his temptations. In summary, a pure, holy, and continuous life was bestowed upon her and her child[52]. Her pure lineage continues, and Jesus (PBUH) is still living a pure life.

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is also blessed; meaning goodness, prosperity, increase, beneficial, and sacred[53], Zakiyah; meaning growth and increase[54] and Kauthar or abundant goodness, much goodness, and much progeny[55].

Allah granted her and her descendants purity, blessing, abundance, and continuity, and prolonged the life of her son, the Remnant of God, as long as the life of Jesus (PBUH).

After her martyrdom, Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) left behind two sons and two daughters. Despite the event of Karbala, where seven children of Imam Hassan (PBUH) and one child of Zainab the Great were martyred (except for Imam Sajjad), and Umm Kulthum had no children, and despite the events of Harrah[56], the incident of Zaid bin Ali bin Al-Hussein, who stood against Hisham bin Abdul Malik and eventually all his companions, most of whom were descendants of Fatimah (PBUH), were martyred, and the event of Fakh, a battle of one of Imam Hassan’s (PBUH) grandchildren against the Abbasids, where all of them were killed, the lineage of Fatimah (PBUH) widely continued and pure Islam persisted through them to this day.

Finally, the Imam of the Time, for whom the souls of the worlds would be sacrificed and who is from the ninth generation of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), is the fruit of this divine pure growth. Today, the remaining word of Ali (PBUH) and Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is ‘And He made it a word remaining in his posterity’[57], to establish the divine rule and fulfill God’s will.

8. Guardian and Custodian

Mary’s father passed away before her birth, and her mother dedicated her to the temple. As her mother could not undertake her guardianship and care, she was entrusted to the temple. There was a dispute among the monks about her guardianship, and it was decided by lot to be under the care of Prophet Zechariah, her maternal uncle[58]: ‘And Zechariah took care of her’[59].

However, the custodian and educator of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was her father, the noble Prophet (PBUH), the educator and guide of all people, and for several years, her mother Khadijah was by her side.

9. Place of Upbringing

 Mary’s place of upbringing was the mosque and mihrab: ‘Whenever Zechariah entered upon her in the prayer chamber’[60]. The place of upbringing of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was the house of the noble Prophet (PBUH) near the Kaaba in Mecca and in Medina, her house near the mosque and the house of the Prophet (PBUH). Allah has spoken highly of her upbringing place and home in the Quran: ‘In houses that Allah has permitted to be raised and that His name is mentioned therein…’[61].

10. Owner of a Mihrab

A mihrab is a special place for worship, whether in a mosque or a home[62]. Mary had a mihrab where she engaged in worship and struggled against impurity and Satan: ‘Whenever Zechariah entered upon her in the prayer chamber’[63].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also had a mihrab, often spoken of by the Prophet and the Imams. Imam Sadiq (PBUH) says, “When she stood in her mihrab, her light shone for the inhabitants of the heavens.”[64]

Imam Hassan (PBUH) recounts his mother’s mihrab: “I saw my mother Fatimah stand in her mihrab on the night of her Friday.”[65]

11. Physical Beauty

Imam Baqir (PBUH) says about Mary, “She was the most beautiful of women; the most beautiful of women.”[66]

Another narration states that on the Day of Judgment, women who were tempted by their beauty and used it as an excuse will be presented with Mary, and they will be asked if they were more beautiful than her![67] Her beauty is proof aginst for other women.

Fatimah (PBUH) is referred to as the shining star in the Quran[68] and, according to narrations, she was named Zahra due to the brightness of her face[69]. The Prophet (PBUH) said about her creation, “Fatimah is a human-shaped houri.”[70] From the totality of narrations, it is evident that the lady of the two worlds had a radiant, luminous, and glittering face.

She was so beautiful that she seemed like the full moon and her neck, white like a crystal bottle, was always smiling, and when she smiled, her teeth appeared like orderly pearls[71].

12. Heart Full of Faith and Certainty

Mary had a heart full of faith and certainty in God. Therefore, Allah says about her, ‘She affirmed the words of her Lord and His scriptures’[72]. It is clear that someone who affirms God’s revelation to prophets, all His promises, commands, prohibitions, and all heavenly books, has a heart full of faith and certainty.

The pure existence of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was free from any form of polytheism, and a heart that is pure and cleansed of any impurity is full of faith and certainty. Specifically, about the faith and certainty of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), numerous narrations have reached us. The noble Prophet (PBUH) says in this regard: “O Salman, indeed, my daughter Fatimah’s heart and limbs are filled with faith to her very core. She is devoted to obeying God.”[73]

Reflection and careful examination of Zahra’s (PBUH) sermon in the mosque of Medina in defense of Fadak[74] clarifies her level of faith.

12. Attainment of the Ultimate Degree of Perfection

Both Mary (PBUH) and Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) had reached the utmost possible perfection. The noble Prophet (PBUH) said, ‘Many men have reached perfection, but among women, only Asiya, daughter of Muzahim, wife of Pharaoh, Mary, daughter of Imran, Khadijah, daughter of Khuwaylid, and Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) have reached the ultimate perfection.’[75]

13. Divine Guardianship

 Mary worshipped the Lord in such a way that Allah granted her guardianship. Therefore, there is a dispute about her prophethood, and a group of Muslims consider her among the prophets[76].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was also a Waliyya of Allah and was granted the status of guardianship, a status proudly held by her father, the noble Prophet (PBUH), her husband, Ali (PBUH), her children, and herself.

14. Siddiqah and Equal to the Prophets

Mary was a Siddiqah (truthful): ‘And his mother was a Siddiqah’[77]. Fatimah Zahra was also a Siddiqah, hence one of her titles is Siddiqah. It has been narrated through various Sunni traditions from Aisha that she said, ‘I have never seen anyone more truthful in speech than Fatimah.’

The Prophet (PBUH) in a narration said: ‘… O Ali (PBUH), you were given a wife who is a Siddiqah, like my daughter, and I have no such wife’[78].

Imam Sadiq (PBUH) said: ‘Ali (PBUH) performed the ritual bath (ghusl) for Fatimah, as only a Siddiq can perform the ghusl for a Siddiqah’[79].

Various meanings have been mentioned for Siddiqah:

  1. Very truthful; 2. Someone who frequently speaks the truth; 3. Someone complete in truthfulness; 4. Someone who has never lied; 5. One who validates their words with their actions; 6. Someone who affirms everything Allah has told them and commanded the prophets, and never doubts divine revelation.

From verses and narrations, it is clear that the rank of the Siddiqeen is alongside the ranks of the prophets and martyrs: ‘And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger – those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions’[80].

15. Perfection in Knowledge and Awareness

Mary possessed high knowledge and awareness. The Quran about her says: ‘And she affirmed the words of her Lord and His scriptures’[81]. It is evident that affirming all of Allah’s words, divine teachings, and scriptures of prophets is based on knowledge and awareness of them; otherwise, affirmation without knowledge is not affirmation, but ignorance.

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also reached perfection in knowledge and awareness. Imam Baqir (PBUH) regarding the reason for naming her Fatimah said: “Indeed, I (Allah) have weaned you (Fatimah) with knowledge; “[82].

In addition to the testimonies of Fatimah Zahra’s (PBUH) speeches, especially her lengthy sermon in the mosque of Medina[83], her level of knowledge is evident from her responses to women’s questions[84], from her exchanges of ideas with Ali (PBUH), and the ‘Mushaf of Fatimah’[85].

Ammar Yasir recounts her infinite knowledge and awareness: ‘One day, Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) said to Amir (Ali PBUH): ‘Ali, come near so I can inform you of what has passed, what is happening now, and what will happen in the future’[86].

16. Infallibility and Purification

 Allah purified both Mary (PBUH) and Fatimah Zahra (PBUH). The Quran about Mary says: ‘And [mention] when the angels said, ‘O Mary, indeed Allah has chosen you and purified you’[87].

One of the names of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is Tahira (pure), and the clearest and best word about her purification is the word of Allah Almighty, who said: ‘Indeed, Allah only intends to keep away the impurity from you, O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification’[88].

Without any doubt, Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is one of the people of the household and among the definitive examples of the mentioned verse. More than twenty eminent Sunni scholars and commentators have admitted that Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) is part of the household in the mentioned verse (92).

17. Purity from Menstrual Blood

The Prophet (PBUH) in a letter he wrote to the Negus describes Mary with the attributes of Tahira (pure) and Batul (virgin)[89]. According to the words of the Prophet (PBUH), Mary, like Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), was a batul: ‘Ali (PBUH) said that the Prophet (PBUH) was asked, ‘What is a batul?’ as we heard you, O Messenger of Allah, saying: ‘Mary was a batul and Fatimah was a batul.’ He replied: ‘A batul is someone who never saw red [menstrual blood]; meaning she never menstruated, as menstruation is disliked in the daughters of prophets’[90].

Regarding Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), there are authentic narrations that emphasize this meaning. Renowned Sunni scholars have also admitted this characteristic of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH)[91].

Qunduzi in Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah quotes the Prophet (PBUH) saying that Fatimah was called batul because Allah kept her away from menstruation and postpartum bleeding[92]. Undoubtedly, being free from menstruation and postpartum bleeding is a definite matter for Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), but regarding Mary (PBUH), the narrations vary. Some narrations say that she would leave the mosque during her menstrual period[93]. In this case, batul for her would mean being cut off from the world and impurities.

18. Chastity and Modesty

The Quran reminds us of Mary: ‘Mary, the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity’[94]. This phrase refers to her chastity and modesty.

The noble Prophet (PBUH) also explicitly mentions the same about Fatimah Zahra (PBUH): ‘Al-Rida from his ancestors (PBUH) said: The Prophet (PBUH) said, ‘Indeed, Fatimah guarded her chastity, so Allah prohibited her offspring from the Fire’[95].

Numerous hadith scholars and Sunni scholars have narrated this statement about Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) from the noble Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and have admitted her utmost chastity and modesty[96]. Allama Amini names sixteen Sunni scholars who have quoted and authenticated this hadith in their books[97].

19. Pure Child

Result of Chastity The Quran about Mary says: ‘Mary, the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We blew into her from Our spirit’[98]. Following Mary’s chastity, Allah breathed His spirit into her, resulting in the birth of Jesus (PBUH).

Allah also granted Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein (PBUH) following her chastity. Hassan has turned this matter into poetry, saying:

‘And indeed, Mary guarded her chastity and brought forth Jesus like the full moon in a dark night. Similarly, Fatimah guarded her chastity after her and brought forth two grandsons of the Prophet of guidance[99].

20. God’s Glad Tidings of a Child

 Allah gave Mary the glad tidings of Jesus (Word of God) and said: ‘Indeed, Allah gives you good tidings of a word from Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary’[100].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was given the glad tidings of Hassan and Hussein (PBUH), two remaining words and complete words of Allah[101]. It is narrated in a prophetic hadith that at the time of the birth of each of the two masters of the youths of Paradise, the Prophet (PBUH) gave Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) the glad tidings and congratulated her in advance that an Imam would be born from her, from whom the people of Paradise would benefit[102].

21. God’s Command to Be Kind to the Mother

Mary gave birth to Jesus (PBUH) after six months of pregnancy[103], and he spoke in the cradle by divine permission: ‘Indeed, I am the servant of Allah… He has made me blessed wherever I am, and has enjoined upon me… and [to be] dutiful to my mother…’[104].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also gave birth to Hussein (PBUH) after six months of pregnancy[105], and before Hussein (PBUH) had a child named Abdullah, due to his perfection and peak of servitude to God, he was given the title Aba Abdallah, and the noble verse: ‘And We have enjoined upon man [care] for his parents’[106] was revealed in his regard and his holy mother[107].

22. Intermediary for Linking Progeny to Prophets

Since Mary did not have a husband, she was the intermediary for linking Jesus (PBUH) to the progeny of prophets. The Quran says: ‘… and from his [Abraham’s] descendants [were] David and Solomon and Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron, and thus do We reward the doers of good. And Zechariah and John and Jesus…’[108].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was also an intermediary for linking and attributing her progeny to the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and the prophets[109]. Imam Musa bin Ja’far (PBUH) in a debate with Harun al-Rashid said: ‘Allah joined Jesus (PBUH) to the lineage of prophets through Mary (PBUH), and similarly, He joined us to the noble Prophet (PBUH) through our mother, Fatimah (PBUH)’[110].

It has been narrated from the Prophet (PBUH) that Almighty Allah placed the progeny of every prophet in the loins of that prophet, but my progeny was placed in the loins of Ali (PBUH)[111].

23. Worship and Devotion

 The Quran says about Mary: ‘And she was of the devoutly obedient’[112] and ‘O Mary, be devoutly obedient to your Lord and prostrate and bow with those who bow [in prayer]’[113]. As indicated by the mentioned verses, she was known for her continuous obedience, prayer, long standings, and supplications. Ibn Khaldun writes that Mary was so dedicated to worship that she is taken as an example[114].

The worship and perseverance of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) in her short life in standing, praying, and supplicating is well-known. Imam Hassan (PBUH) said about her: ‘I saw my mother Fatimah (PBUH) standing in her prayer niche on a Friday night, continuously bowing and prostrating until dawn, and I heard her praying for believing men and women…’[115].

Hasan Basri says: ‘No one in this Ummah was more devout in worship than Fatimah Zahra (PBUH); she used to stand in worship until her feet swelled’[116].

Ibn Fahd Hilli in his book mentions that the pure Siddiqah would pant in prayer out of fear of Allah[117]. Most notably, her concern on her wedding night was worship and devotion to the Lord. Imam Ali (PBUH) says, ‘I saw Fatimah worried and crying on our wedding night. When I asked why, she replied: I thought about my fate and what it will be like when I die and go to the grave. Today, I moved from my father’s house to yours, and one day I will go from here towards the grave and the Day of Judgment. So, I swear by God, let’s stand and worship Allah together tonight’.[118]

The extent of Fatimah’s (PBUH) standing, worship, and devotion was such that, according to the noble Prophet (PBUH), the noble verse: ‘Those who remember Allah while standing or sitting…[119] was revealed in her honor[120].

24. Servant of Allah

Mary, due to her mother’s vow, was a servant of Allah and His house: ‘Indeed, I have vowed to You what is in my womb, consecrated [for Your service]’[121].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also served Allah with knowledge, awareness, and love. The noble Prophet (PBUH) once asked his daughter: “Fatimah, what do you wish for? The angel of revelation is beside me now, and he has brought a message from Allah to fulfill whatever you desire.”

Fatimah (PBUH) replied: “The pleasure I find in serving Allah prevents me from asking anything from Him. My only wish is to always behold the beautiful countenance of God” [122].

25. Worshipful Presence Among Men

Allah commanded Mary: ‘And bow with those who bow [in prayer]’[123]. To implement this command, she needed to be present among the praying men and Mary complied, praying and bowing with the monks in the temple.

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also fulfilled her divine duties and defended the right and Imamate of Ali (PBUH) by attending some gatherings of men.

26. Chosen and Superior Among Women

Mary was superior among the women of her time, but Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was the most superior of all women from the first to the last. Allah says about Mary: ‘Indeed, Allah chose you and purified you and chose you above the women of the worlds’[124]. The first selection in the verse above is said to be for purification and divine mission, and the second selection, accompanied by ‘above’, is for superiority over women[125].

Regarding the superiority of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) over all women of the world from the first to the last, there are numerous narrations[126]. A narration from the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) states: ‘Mary was the lady of the women of her time, but Fatimah is the lady of the women of the worlds from the first to the last. Indeed, when she stands in her mihrab to worship, seventy thousand close angels greet her and address her with the same call they gave to Mary: ‘O Fatimah! Allah has chosen you, purified you, and made you superior over the women of the worlds’[127].

Ibn Abi al-Hadid, a Sunni scholar, says: ‘The Prophet’s statement that Fatimah (PBUH) is the best woman in the world is definitive and certain’ [128].

27. Muhaddithah and the Descent of Angels

Mary was a Muhaddithah (one spoken to by angels), and angels and Gabriel descended upon her and spoke to her: ‘When the angels said, ‘O Mary, indeed Allah gives you good tidings of a word from Him…’[129], and ‘He said, ‘I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy…’[130], and ‘O Mary, indeed Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the worlds’ [131].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was also a Muhaddithah; angels and Gabriel descended upon her and spoke to her. There are many consecutive spiritual narrations in this regard, and Sunni scholars have admitted the authenticity of these narrations by quoting them[132].

Among the narrations is what Imam Sadiq (PBUH) said: “Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was called Muhaddithah because angels descended from the sky upon her, calling out to her just as they did to Mary, ‘O Fatimah, indeed Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the worlds. O Fatimah, be devoutly obedient to your Lord, and prostrate and bow with those who bow [in prayer].” The Mushaf of Fatimah was the result of the dialogue between the close angel and Her Eminence[133].

28. Consolation and Relief from Grief through Gabriel and Angels

After becoming pregnant, being alone, and fearing people’s talk, Mary experienced grief and sorrow. At that time, a call came saying, ‘Do not grieve…’[134]. Some commentators have identified the caller as Jesus in Mary’s womb[135], while others have said it was an angel or Gabriel[136].

Fatimah Zahra, after her father’s death, experienced intense grief and sorrow. Almighty Allah sent angels and Gabriel to her to console her and reduce her grief[137]: ‘… and Gabriel would come to her, console her about her father, soothe her, and inform her about her father and his place…’

29. Dignity and Divine Influence

By the permission of her Lord, Mary shook the dry palm tree, and it instantly bore fresh dates, from which Mary ate: ‘And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates’[138].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also had many miracles and signs of divine influence, such as the turning of the grinding stone[139], the rocking of the cradle[140], and food being prepared[141] without human intervention.

Abu Dharr narrates: ‘The Prophet sent me to invite Ali (PBUH) to his presence. When I went to Ali’s house and called out, no one answered, but I saw the grinding stone turning by itself, grinding wheat into flour, with no one around it. I returned and told the Prophet what I had seen, saying I was astonished to see the grinding stone in Ali’s house turning by itself without anyone to turn it.

The Prophet (PBUH) said: ‘Indeed, Allah has filled my daughter’s heart with certainty and her being with faith. Allais is aware of her weakness; thus, He assists her and takes care of her affairs. Do you not know that Allah has angels who assist the family of Muhammad (PBUH)?’ [142]

30. Receiving Heavenly Food

One of Mary’s (PBUH) miracles was receiving heavenly food from God: ‘Whenever Zechariah entered upon her in the prayer chamber, he found with her provision. He said, ‘O Mary, from where is this [coming] to you?’ She said, ‘It is from Allah. Indeed, Allah provides for whom He wills without account’[143].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also received heavenly foods on several occasions[144]. It is narrated that during a difficult day in the life of the Prophet’s household, when they were suffering from hunger, Fatimah (PBUH) performed ablution, prayed, and after two units of prayer, asked Allah for a heavenly meal. Suddenly, a dish of heavenly food descended, filling Ali’s house with fragrance.

Imam Ali (PBUH) asked, “Where did this come from?”

She replied, “It is from Allah.”

The noble Prophet (PBUH), upon learning of this, said, “Praise be to Allah who granted me a daughter like Mary, to whom Zechariah the Prophet would come in her place of worship and find food before her. He would ask, ‘Where is this from?” Mary would reply, ‘It is from God” [145].

This incident is narrated by Zamakhshari in Al-Kashaf.

31. Creating Astonishment

Prophet Zechariah (PBUH) was astonished to see winter food in summer and summer food in winter with Mary, despite knowing her family’s purity and Mary’s nobility: ‘Whenever Zechariah entered upon her in the prayer chamber, he found with her provision. He said, ‘O Mary, from where is this [coming] to you…’ [146].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also had many miracles and behaviors that astonished the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)[147], Ali (PBUH)[148], and sometimes companions like Salman and Abu Dharr[149].

32. Hope-inspiring

Upon seeing the heavenly meal with Mary and hearing her saying, ‘…provides for whom He wills without account’ [150], Zechariah (PBUH) was inspired and thought that if this was the case, then Allah granting him a child was also possible. Thus, he requested a child in his old age with hope[151].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also had dignities and special divine attentions that inspired hope in the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Ali (PBUH), and particularly the companions of the Prophet like Salman, Abu Dharr, and Miqdad.

33. Hardships and Trials

Hardships and trials are effective factors in the path to perfection and play a clear role in getting closer to God. Therefore, Allah tests all His friends with special hardships and trials. Imam Sadiq (PBUH) quotes from Ali (PBUH): “Indeed, the most tested people are the prophets, then the successors, then the next best, and so on…” [152].

Mary (PBUH) endured many hardships and ordeals. The hardest was being away from her parents throughout her life, serving the Temple of Jerusalem from childhood, being slandered and suspected by people despite her purity, pregnancy, and childbirth in solitude and estrangement, lacking a place to rest, seeking refuge near a palm tree, and raising a child without a father amidst people’s harsh looks and remarks.

However, the hardships and trials of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) were endless from childhood. In her mother’s womb, she felt her mother’s loneliness, anxiety, and grief[153]. When she opened her eyes to the world, she witnessed her father’s torment[154]. Soon, she found herself enduring hardships alongside her father in the She’b Abi Talib and migrating from Mecca to Medina in fear. The father’s hardships in Medina, especially the Battle of Uhud[155], became her own. Then came the Prophet’s death, with grief, tears, unbearable pains, and the killing of her unborn child, Mohsen, leading to her wish for death and martyrdom.

34. Slander and Unjust Accusations

The ignorant slandered Mary (PBUH) and made inappropriate accusations against her, despite knowing her family’s purity and Mary’s nobility: ‘They said, ‘O Mary, you have certainly done an unprecedented thing. O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste’[156].

Imam Sadiq (PBUH) also mentions in a lengthy narration about the seven major sins mentioned in the Quran, all of which were committed by some ignorant members of the Islamic Ummah against the Ahlul Bayt (PBUH): “… As for slandering a chaste woman, it refers to those who slandered Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) from the pulpit of the Prophet’s mosque and made inappropriate accusations against her…”[157].

35. Wishing for Death Mary (PBUH)

Overwhelmed by grief and fear of people’s disbelief and slander, wished for death and requested it from God: ‘Oh, I wish I had died before this…’[158].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) also, due to intense grief and suffering, wished for death and asked Allah to hasten her death: ‘O God, hasten my death quickly.’ Allah granted her wish[159].

36. Silence and Prohibition of Speech

Mary (PBUH), commanded by her Lord, chose silence and refrained from speaking to the ignorant and malicious people who insulted her: ‘So I will not speak to any human being today’[160].

Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), after hearing insults from some on the pulpit of the Prophet’s mosque and others at the threshold of the mosque, chose silence towards those two (Abu Bakr and Umar) and prohibited them from speaking to her, saying she would never speak to them again: ‘I will not speak a single word to them’[161].

37. Bathing by a Truthful Person

 Mary (PBUH) was bathed after her death by Jesus (PBUH). Similarly, Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was bathed, shrouded, and buried by Imam Ali (PBUH). Mufaddal, a prominent companion of Imam Sadiq (PBUH), reports that he asked the Imam who bathed Fatimah Zahra (PBUH). The Imam replied: ‘It was Amir al-Mu’minin (Imam Ali) (PBUH).’

Mufaddal says he was surprised and puzzled by this, so the Imam asked him: ‘Are you troubled by what I told you?’

I replied: ‘Yes, may I be sacrificed for you.’

The Imam said: ‘Do not be troubled; because Fatimah (PBUH) was a truthful woman (Siddiqah), and no one but a truthful person (Siddiq) should bathe her. Don’t you know that no one but Jesus bathed Mary (PBUH)?’[162].

39. Longing for Paradise

 Traditions state that Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) and Mary are two of the four women of Paradise and that Paradise longs for them: ‘Paradise longs for four women: Mary daughter of Imran, Asiya daughter of Muzahim, wife of Pharaoh, Khadijah daughter of Khuwaylid, and Fatimah daughter of Muhammad.’[163]

40. Paradise as an Eternal Abode

The verses of the Quran and the infallibility and life of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) and Mary (PBUH) in this world, as recorded in traditions and history, clearly show their eternal place in Paradise. In addition to this, many Islamic narrations explicitly state their status in Paradise. The clarity of this matter is such that it is considered among the necessities of the religion. Traditions state that the first woman, indeed the first person to enter Paradise, will be Fatimah Zahra (PBUH), followed by other holy women like Mary (PBUH)[164].

Conclusion

The following points can be considered as the most important:

  1. Allah is the source of holiness, and individuals and objects are sanctified based on their special affiliation and the manifestation of Allain them and God’s manifestation through them.
  2. Mary is considered holy by all Christians, regardless of their differences, and nothing in Christianity has been able to overshadow her sanctity.
  3. The Quran has based the sanctity of Mary (PBUH) on her qualities and characteristics.
  4. All the qualities of Mary (PBUH) that formed the basis of her sanctity were even more present in Fatimah Zahra (PBUH). In addition, Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) possessed other attributes that in themselves could be the source of sanctity.
  5. Envy, grudges, and ambitions of some individuals in early Islam led to the beginning of the concealment of the sanctity of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) after the demise of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and ignorance and bigotry perpetuated it.
  6. Concealing the sanctity of Fatimah Zahra (PBUH) was not only an injustice to her but also harmed Islam and humanity. It took away the banner of Islam in respecting and honoring women and the high status of women in this religion. Meanwhile, in the Western world, claiming Christianity, many shortcomings towards women have been covered under the slogan and banner of the sanctity of Mary.


[1] Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 43, pp. 48, 49, and 77; Vol. 14, p. 201

[2] Ibid., Vol. 43, p. 77.

[3] Ibid., Vol. 43, pp. 48-49; Vol. 14, pp. 197 and 206

[4] “Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 488.

[5] Al-Ghadir, Vol. 2, p. 61; Manaqib, Vol. 4, p. 24

[6] History of Ibn Khaldun, Vol. 1, p. 159.

[7] Stories of the Prophets, p. 376

[8] Al Imran / 33.

[9] Al-Khisal, Vol. 1, p. 225

[10] Al-Burhan in the Interpretation of the Quran, Vol. 1, pp. 277-278.

[11] Al-Ahzab / 33

[12] Ibrahim / 24

[13] An-Nur / 36.

[14] Al-Ghadir, Vol. 3, p. 107.

[15] Ash-Shura / 23.

[16] Al-Ghadir, Vol. 3, p. 31.

[17] Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 350.

[18] At-Tawbah / 119.

[19] Al-Ghadir, Vol. 2, p. 306.

[20] Al-Waqi’ah / 10-11.

[21] Al-Ghadir, Vol. 2, p. 211.

[22] Al-Fatiha / 6.

[23] Quranic Stories in Al-Mizan, Vol. 2, p. 407.

[24] Al-Imran / 35.

[25] Stories of the Prophets, p. 352.

[26] History of Ibn Khaldun, vol. 1, p. 159.

[27] Al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 184.

[28] Causes of the Laws (Ilal al-Shara’i), p. 124.

[29] Stories of the Prophets, p. 352.

[30] Al-Imran / 35.

[31] History of Ibn Khaldun, vol. 1, p. 159.

[32] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 194.

[33] Al-Imran / 37.

[34] Ad-Duha / 8.

[35] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 49.

[36] Al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol. 4, p. 473.

[37] Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 439.

[38] Al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 206.

[39] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 53.

[40] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 28.

[41] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 4.

[42] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 2.

[43] Al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 183; Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 484; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 199.

[44] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, pp. 4-5.

[45] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 43.

[46] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 3.

[47] Al-Imran / 36.

[48] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 10; Causes of the Laws (Ilal al-Shara’i), p. 178.

[49] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 13; Causes of the Laws (Ilal al-Shara’i), p. 179.

[50] Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 295.

[51] Al-Imran / 37.

[52] Al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 173.

[53] Raghib’s Vocabulary, p. 44; Majma’ al-Bahrain, vol. 5, p. 258.

[54] Raghib’s Vocabulary, p. 212.

[55] Ibid., p. 326; Majma’ al-Bahrain, vol. 3, p. 469.

[56] Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 553.

[57] Az-Zukhruf / 28.

[58] Stories of the Quran, p. 232.

[59] Al-Imran / 36.

[60] Al-Imran / 37.

[61] An-Nur / 36.

[62] Al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 174.

[63] Al-Imran / 379.

[64] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 12; Causes of the Laws (Ilal al-Shara’i), p. 181.

[65] Causes of the Laws (Ilal al-Shara’i), p. 182; Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 2, p. 25; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 81.

[66] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 204.

[67] Ibid., vol. 14, p. 192.

[68] Al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol. 3, p. 133.

[69] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 16.

[70] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 18.

[71]Fatimah Zahra, from Birth to Martyrdom, pp. 31-33.

[72] At-Tahrim / 12.

[73] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 64.

[74] Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 2, p. 40; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 158.

[75] Al-Mizan, vol. 19, p. 346; Majma’ al-Bayan, vol. 5, p. 320.

[76] History of Ibn Khaldun, p. 161.

[77] Al-Ma’idah / 75.

[78] Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 312.

[79] Causes of the Laws (Ilal al-Shara’i), p. 184.

[80] An-Nisa / 68.

[81] At-Tahrim / 12.

[82] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 13.

[83] Explanation of Nahj al-Balaghah by Ibn Abi al-Hadid, vol. 16, p. 212; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 158.

[84] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 2, p. 3.

[85] Refer to: Ali, The Speaking Quran, p. 86.

[86] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 8.

[87] Al-Imran / 42.

[88] Al-Ahzab / 33.

[89]History of Ibn Khaldun, p. 434.

[90] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 15.

[91] (Qunduzi in Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 260; Muhammad Saleh Keshfi in Manaqib; Emratsuy in Arjeh al-Matalib; Hafiz Abu Bakr Shafi’i in Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 13, p. 331; Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Kabir, vol. 1, p. 319; Hafiz Suyuti and Rafei in Al-Tadwin; Tabari in Dhakhair al-Uqbi; and Safuri in Nuzhat al-Majalis, p. 227), quoted from: Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 121.

[92] Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, p. 260.

[93] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 197; Stories of the Prophets, p. 353.

[94] At-Tahrim / 12.

[95] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 20; Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 61.

[96] (Hakim in Al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 152; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in his History, vol. 3, p. 54; Muhibb al-Din Tabari in Dhakhair al-Uqbi, p. 48; Sadr al-Huffaz Kunji Shafi’i in Al-Kifayah, p. 222; Suyuti in Ihya al-Mayyit, p. 257; Muttaqi Hindi in Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6, p. 219 and 112; and Shablanji in Noor al-Absar, p. 45) quoted from: Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 62.

[97] Al-Ghadir, vol. 3, p. 175

[98] At-Tahrim / 11.

[99] Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 61.

[100] Al-Imran / 45.

[101] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 48.

[102] Ibid

[103] Ibid., vol. 14, p. 207. However, we have a reliable narration that the pregnancy of Maryam (AS) lasted nine hours, each hour equivalent to one month.

[104] Maryam / 29-31.

[105] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 207.

[106] Al-Ahqaf / 15.

[107] Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 365; Al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol. 4, p. 172.

[108] Al-An’am / 84-85.

[109] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 37.

[110] Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 82.

[111] This narration has been quoted by Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1, p. 316; Khwarizmi in Manaqib, p. 229; Muhibb al-Din Tabari, Hamuyini, Dhahabi, Ibn Hajar Makki, Muttaqi Hindi, Zarqani, and Qunduzi among the Sunni scholars. (Refer to: Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 83).

[112] At-Tahrim / 12.

[113] Al-Imran / 43.

[114] History of Ibn Khaldun, vol. 1, p. 160.

[115] Ilal al-Shara’i, p. 182.

[116] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 76 and 84.

[117] Fatimah from Birth to Martyrdom, p. 221.

[118] Irshad al-Dailami, vol. 1, p. 270.

[119] Al-Imran / 191.

[120] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 35.

[121] Al-Imran / 35.

[122] Culture of Sayings of Fatimah, p. 83.

[123] Al-Imran / 43.

[124] Al-Imran / 42.

[125] Al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 188.

[126] Refer to: Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, pp. 22, 24, 26, 36, 37, 49, and 78.

[127] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 49.

[128] Explanation of Nahj al-Balaghah by Ibn Abi al-Hadid, vol. 15, p. 197.

[129] Al-Imran / 45.

[130] Maryam / 19.

[131] Al-Imran / 42.

[132] Refer to: Al-Ghadir, vol. 5, p. 49; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 78.

[133] Refer to: Ali, The Speaking Quran, p. 86.

[134] Maryam / 24.

[135] Al-Mizan, vol. 14, p. 43.

[136] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 14, p. 209.

[137] Al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 346; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 79.

[138] Maryam / 25.

[139] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 29.

[140] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 45.

[141] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 30.

[142] Ibid., vol. 43, p. 29.

[143] Al-Imran / 37.

[144] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, pp. 27, 29, 31, and 77.

[145] Ibid., vol. 35, p. 251; Culture of Sayings of Fatimah, p. 261.

[146] Al-Imran / 37.

[147] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 91.

[148] Ibid., vol. 43, pp. 74, 60, and 31.

[149] Ibid., vol. 43, pp. 45-46.

[150] Al-Imran / 37.

[151] Al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 174.

[152] Explanation of Forty Hadiths, p. 203.

[153] Bihar al-Anwar, 43, p. 2.

[154] Sahih Bukhari, vols. 1 and 5

[155] Sahih Bukhari, vols. 1, 4, and 5 as cited in: A Journey through Sahihain, p. 325.

[156] Maryam / 27-28.

[157] Al-Khisal, p. 364.

[158] Maryam / 23.

[159] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 177; Ihqaq al-Haq, vol. 19, p. 16; Culture of Sayings of Fatimah, p. 177.

[160] Maryam / 26.

[161] Tarikh Tabari, vol. 3, p. 236; Explanation of Nahj al-Balaghah by Ibn Abi al-Hadid, vol. 1, p. 134 and vol. 2, p. 19; Al-Ghadir, vol. 7, pp. 226 and 229; Culture of Sayings of Fatimah, p. 248.

[162] Al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 459; Ilal al-Shara’i, p. 184.

[163] Al-Khisal, pp. 206 and 235.

[164] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 53.

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