The Bible in the Quran

The Bible in the Quran

The Bible [Al-Kitāb al-Muqaddas: الكِتابُ المُقَدَّس] is a collection of scriptures and writings which comprises the Old Testament [Al-‘Ahd al-Qadīm: العَهدُ القَديم] and the New Testament [Al-‘Ahd al-Jadīd: العَهدُ الجَديد]. Generally, the Old Testament is what mostly comprises the Torah [تَراة] of Moses, while the New Testament comprises mostly the Gospel or Evangel [إِنجيل] of Jesus.

What the Bible Contains

  • Old Testament including books such as:
    • Torah
    • Tanakh
    • Psalms
    • Genesis
    • Exodus
    • Leviticus
    • Book of Numbers
    • Deuteronomy
  • New Testament including:
    • The four canonical gospels of:
      • Matthew
      • Mark
      • Luke
      • John
    • Acts of the Apostles
    • Epistles
    • Book of Revelation

The New Testament contains the biography of Jesus, his words of advice, teachings, and sermons. Christians do not believe that a book was revealed to Jesus, but rather believe that Jesus himself was the embodiment of Divine revelation and the message of Allah. They believe that the Gospel was the teachings of Jesus which were written down by his disciples.

The Quran has mentioned both the Gospel and Torah in a number of verses and has described them as books of guidance and light. The Quran says that the Gospel is confirmer of what was revealed before it (the Torah), and an exhortation for the pious. 1 Likewise, it states that the Quran, aka Furqan (Criterion), confirms these two Holy Scriptures, thus denoting that the Quran was revealed after these two Holy Scriptures. 2

Nevertheless, the Quran rejects certain things written in the Bible, stating that distortions have been created in it. For example, contrary to the Bible, the Quran states:

  • God does not have a physical body or image.
  • God does not lie to his people
  • The tree Adam and Eve ate from was not the tree of knowledge but a forbidden tree which was a means for examination.
  • Jesus is not son of God, but rather God’s servant and prophet.
  • The Trinity is a wrong and made-up belief that contradicts monotheism.
  • Prophets such as Moses, David, and Solomon are infallible and do not commit sins.

Bible in the Quran in Some Chapters and Verses

The Noble Quran has spoken very much concerning the two major heavenly books: the Torah of Moses, and the Gospel of Jesus, both of which are now considered to be part of the Bible. The Quran praises the original Torah and Gospel and calls them books of guidance and truth. In this regard, the Quran states:

نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ ﴿3﴾

He has sent down to you the Book with the truth, confirming what was [revealed] before it, and He had sent down the Torah and the Evangel

مِن قَبْلُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَنزَلَ الْفُرْقَانَ ۗ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّـهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انتِقَامٍ ﴿4﴾

before as guidance for mankind, and He has sent down the Criterion. Indeed, there is a severe punishment for those who deny the signs of Allah, and Allah is all-mighty, avenger. 3

Therefore, the Quran confirms the Torah and Gospel in their original form and states that they were revealed before the Quran. As a result, Muslims must also believe in all of God’s heavenly scriptures such as the original Torah and Gospel as stated in the Quran. However, the current Bible is not entirely accepted by Muslims as certain parts and contents of it are inconsistent with the Quran. In other words, parts of it have been distorted and altered.

Bible in the Quran: The Torah

The Quran states how the original Torah contains light and guidance. The prophets, Jews, rabbis, and scribes before Prophet Muhammad would judge based upon it:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّـهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًاۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

We sent down the Torah containing guidance and light. The prophets, who had submitted, judged by it for the Jews, and so did the rabbis and the scribes, as they were charged to preserve the Book of Allah and were witnesses to it. So do not fear the people, but fear Me, and do not sell My signs for a paltry gain. Those who do not judge by what Allah has sent down—it is they who are the faithless. 4

The Torah has been given other names in the Quran, such as Kitāb (كِتاب) the Book, 5 Furqān (فُرقان) the Criterion, 6 Ḍiyā’ (ضياء), Light, 7 and Dhikr (ذِكر) Reminder. 8

Bible in the Quran: When was the Torah Revealed to Moses?

The Quran states that the Torah was revealed to Moses when God commanded him to climb Mount Sinai and stay there and worship Him for a total of forty nights. 9 Then God spoke with Moses, 10 made him a prophet, and gave him the mission of preaching his people. 11 Then God gave him the “Tablet of Stones” 12 which contained the “Ten Commandments.” 13 It contains “advice concerning all things and an elaboration of all things.” 14

However, the Quran states that certain parts of the Torah were changed by some Jewish scribes. 15 These verses state that the scribes of the Torah, Gospel, and other Christian and Jewish Holy Scriptures would write things which were not part of the Gospel or Torah and would change the places of the words in a clever way which changed the meaning of the Book of God to their advantage. 16

Bible in the Quran: The Gospel

In chapter three of the Quran, Āl-i ‘Imrān (آلِ عِمران), when God gives the good news of the birth of a son from Mary to her and says how He would create Jesus without a father and by only saying, “‘Be,’ and it is,” 17 God says that He will teach her son Jesus, the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel. 18 And, He will send him as a prophet and apostle to the Children of Israel with many miracles. 19

Elsewhere, God addresses Jesus directly and reminds him of the blessings He has given him such as the miracles He bestowed on him and how He taught him the Book, Wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel. 20

Muslims, unlike Christians, believe that the Gospel was revealed to Jesus similar to how the Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad and that it was a Holy Scripture. This has been stated in the following verse:

وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِم بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

“We followed them with Jesus son of Mary, to confirm that which was before him of the Torah, and We gave him the Evangel containing guidance and light, confirming what was before it of the Torah, and as guidance and advice for the Godwary.” 21

Bible in the Quran: Where is the Original Gospel?

Muslims believe that the original version of the Gospel is not available and remains obscure. They also believe that in the end times (آخِرُ الزَّمان), during the arrival of the Mahdi (مَهدي), he will uncover this scripture and will use it to argue and debate against the Christians in favor of the religion of Islam. As a result, it is predicted that at that time, many Christians will embrace Islam.

However, Christians do not hold such a belief and consider the four canonical gospels as reports of the disciples and followers of Jesus that were inspired to them.  Of course, the current Bible may well contain some of the contents of the original Gospel and valuable information.

Bible in the Quran: The Gospel of Barnabas

Two copies of a specific version of the Gospel, known as the Gospel of Barnabas, which is attributed to the disciple of Jesus by the same name, were discovered in the late 16th or early 17th century written in Italian and Spanish. However, its text survives only in a partial 18th-century transcript. The length of this uncanonical gospel is as about as much as the four canonical gospels combined. 22 The content of this gospel is very much similar to the Islamic interpretation and understanding of Christianity and Jesus.

Unlike the canonical gospels, the Gospel of Barnabas is much more in line with Islam and the Quran, albeit there still exist some major differences. There is no such belief as the Trinity in this gospel and it is stated decisively that there is only one God and that Jesus was only a prophet of God and not His son. 23 Moreover, in line with the Quran, this gospel rejects the crucifixion of Jesus and states the one who betrayed him, Judas Iscariot, was the one who was crucified, and that Jesus was raised to heaven. 24

Bible in the Quran: Prediction of the Arrival of Muhammad

Another very important difference compared to other gospels in the Gospel of Barnabas is that Jesus prophesizes the arrival of the last Apostle of God, Muhammad, in one of his sermons to people. Jesus says:

The name of the Messiah is admirable, for God himself gave him the name when he had created his soul, and placed it in a celestial splendour. God said: ‘Wait Mohammed; for thy sake I will to create paradise, the world, and a great multitude of creatures, whereof I make thee a present, insomuch that whoso bless thee shall be blessed, and whoso shall curse thee shall be accursed.

When I shall send thee into the world I shall send thee as my messenger of salvation, and thy word shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but thy faith shall never fail.’ Mohammed is his blessed name.” Then the crowd lifted up their voices, saying: “O God, send us thy messenger: O Muhammad, come quickly for the salvation of the world! 25

Similar Passage in the Quran

Prophet Muhammad in the aforementioned passage of the Gospel of Barnabas has been given the title “Admirable” which is the translation of Ahmad (أَحمَد). This passage of Barnabas draws a close parallel with the following verse of the Quran:

And when Jesus son of Mary said, ‘O Children of Israel! Indeed I am the apostle of Allah to you, to confirm what is before me of the Torah, and to give the good news of an apostle who will come after me, whose name is Ahmad.’ But when he brought them manifest proofs, they said, ‘This is plain magic.’ 26

Nonetheless, Christians do not consider the Gospel of Barnabas to be authentic, and some believe that it has been fabricated by Muslims in order to align the Bible with the Quran and prove the truth of the Islamic religion.

Bible in the Quran: Jesus is Not Crucified

The Gospel of Barnabas, in line with the Quran, denies the crucifixion of Jesus, stating that it was Judas Iscariot, the traitor who revealed Jesus’ whereabouts to the Romans who was crucified in his stead. This gospel also agrees with the Quran that he was raised to heavens 27

This has been stated in the Quran as well:

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّـهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَـٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا بَل رَّفَعَهُ اللَّـهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

And for their saying, ‘We killed the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the apostle of Allah’—though they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but so it was made to appear to them. Indeed those who differ concerning him are surely in doubt about him: they do not have any knowledge of that beyond following conjectures, and certainly, they did not kill him. Indeed, Allah raised him up toward Himself, and Allah is all-mighty, all-wise. 28

Similar Verses in the Bible and the Quran

As the confirmer and completer of the Torah and Gospel, the Quran shares many parallels with the Torah and Gospel regarding certain events, stories, moral guidance, advice, and laws and rulings. In other words, some of the contents of the Torah and Gospel have been mentioned in the Quran, albeit with differences. However, this does not mean that Prophet Muhammad derived the Quran from the Torah and Gospel as Jews and Christians believe. Prophet Muhammad was unlettered, meaning he never wrote or read anything in his life, whether it be prose or poetry.

Here are a few similar passages in the Quran and the Bible.

1. Prophet Zechariah and John

Quran: Then, as he stood praying in the sanctuary the angels called out to him: ‘Allah gives you the good news of John, as a confirmer of a Word of Allah, eminent and chaste, a prophet, and one of the righteous.’ 29

Bible:  Then an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. When Prophet Zechariah saw him, he was startled and was gripped with fear. But the angel said to him: “Do not be afraid, Zechariah; your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you are to call him John. 30

2. Angels and Humans

Quran: The heavens are about to be rent apart from above them, while the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord and plead for forgiveness for those [faithful] who are on the earth. Indeed, Allah is the All-forgiving, the All-merciful! 31

Bible: In the same way, I tell you, there is rejoicing in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.” 32

3. Growth of Seeds

Quran: Have you considered what you sow? Is it you who make it grow, or are We the grower? 33

Bible: So neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God, who makes things grow. 34

4. Swearing by the Name of God

Quran: Do not make Allah an obstacle, through your oaths, to being pious and Godwary, and to bringing about concord between people. And Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing. 35

Bible: You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name. 36

5. Obedience Toward Parents

Quran: Your Lord has decreed that you shall not worship anyone except Him, and [He has enjoined] kindness to parents. Should any of them or both reach old age at your side, do not say to them, ‘Fie!’ And do not chide them, but speak to them noble words. Lower the wing of humility to them, mercifully, and say, ‘My Lord! Have mercy on them, just as they reared me when I was [a] small [child]! 37

Bible: Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the Lord your God is giving you. 38

6. Praise of God

Quran: Allah—there is no god except Him—is the Living One, the All-sustainer. Neither drowsiness befalls Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that may intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wishes. His seat embraces the heavens and the earth and He is not wearied by their preservation, and He is the All-exalted, the All-supreme. 39

Bible: You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power for you created all things, and by your will they were created and have their being. 40

7. Guarding Angels

Quran: He is the All-dominant over His servants, and He sends guards to [protect] you. 41

Bible: See, I am sending an angel ahead of you to guard you along the way and to bring you to the place I have prepared. 42

Bible in the Quran: The Differences Between the Quran and the Bible

One of the major differences between the Quran and the Bible is that the Quran is believed to be the word of God to the letter revealed to Prophet Muhammad through the archangel, Gabriel. Thus, it is not the word of a human being.

The Bible, on the other hand, comprises the Old Testament, which the Torah is a part of it, as well as the New Testament which is a collection of the writings of some of the companions of Jesus, known as the disciples, as agreed upon by both Christians and Muslims. Four of Jesus’ disciples wrote the four canonical gospels that contain similar, different, and sometimes inconsistent and contradictory substance. The names of these disciples of Jesus who wrote the gospels are:

  • Mark (AD 66-70)
  • Matthew (AD 85-90)
  • Luke (AD 85-90)
  • John (AD 90-110)

Bible in the Quran: Inconsistencies Between the Quran and the Bible

Many of the things said in the Bible go against the Quran. For example, in the Bible we read that God created man in His own image, 43 that He wrestled with Jacob and was defeated by him, 44 that He walked in the Garden of Eden, 45 that he appeared to Moses on Mount Sinai, 46 that He lied, 47 that He has begotten a son by the name of Jesus, 48 that Jesus was crucified, 49 and many other inappropriate attributions.

Some Muslims believe that such false accusations and attributions to God were made by the people of that time in order to justify their own wrong acts and to exonerate their misdeeds, such as taking bribes (رشوة) and usury (رِبا). 50 In other words, they tried to say that if God is bad, we could also be bad.

Bible in the Quran: God in the Quran

The Quran refutes all such false beliefs, stating that there is only one God and that He is clear from such material attributions. He is beyond matter and none is like Him 51 and no such negative attributions can ever be made about Him. 52

There is only one God. 53 He is a single incorporeal and spiritual being who is ever living and immortal. 54 Some of his attributes have been mentioned beautifully in chapter 59, surah Hashr, verses 22-24:

هُوَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿22﴾

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—Knower of the sensible and the Unseen, He is the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.

هُوَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿23﴾

He is Allah—there is no god except Him—the Sovereign, the All-holy, the All-benign, the Securer, the All-conserver, the All-mighty, the All-compeller, and the All-magnanimous. Clear is Allah of any partners that they may ascribe [to Him]!

هُوَ اللَّـهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿24﴾

He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, and the Former. To Him belong the Best Names. Whatever there is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise. 55

Furthermore, God is just and never wrongs anyone in the least. 56 He makes no mistakes, is truthful, and keeps His covenant. 57

Bible in the Quran: Discrepancy and Contradictions in the Bible

One can notice a great deal of inconsistency and even contradiction in the Bible. Here are some of them:

  • The genealogy of Jesus:
    • Was his ancestor Solomon son of David? (Luke)
    • Or Solomon’s brother Nathan son of David? (Matthew)
  • Only the gospel of John speaks of Jesus’ divinity.
  • There exists many statements by Jesus saying that there is only one God.
  • In the gospels and epistles, it has been stated that Jesus worshipped God and fasted, a matter that goes against the idea of being God or Son of God.
  • It has been written that Jesus prayed to God which is also an act of worship that only servants of God would perform, not someone who is a God.

On the other hand, the Quran maintains consistency throughout its chapters and verses and there is no contradiction or discrepancy in them. The Quran itself draws attention to this fact:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّـهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

“Do they not contemplate the Quran? Had it been from [someone] other than Allah, they would have surely found much discrepancy in it.” 58

Bible in the Quran: Who is the Messiah?

Messiah (مَسيح) is a word that is used to describe someone who will be a savior of mankind and deliver them from oppression and injustice. Originally, this word was used for Jesus, as he would be the one who would deliver the Children of Israel or the Israelites from injustice, hence it is one of his titles. However, this word has a broad meaning and it can include any human being who comes to deliver mankind from oppression and injustice.

Moses was the Messiah of the Israelites. In the end times, however, Jews believe that the Messiah will be a ruler and king of the progeny of Prophet David who by appearing will spread peace and justice all over the world. Christians believe that Jesus himself, will come to the rescue of mankind in the end times and he is the final Messiah.

In view of this, Prophet Muhammad can be considered the Messiah of his people and the final and seal of prophets whose religion is the most perfect religion, which no other religion can abolish it.

Bible in the Quran: The Final Messiah According to Muslims

The very final savior and liberator of mankind in the end times is one of the descendants of Prophet Muhammad who has the title Mahdi (مَهدي), meaning the guided one. Mahdi is the twelfth Imam and successor to Prophet Muhammad who is in occultation and will reappear to fill the world with justice and fairness, just as it has been filled with injustice and oppression.

Jesus will also descend to the earth at this time and he will aid the Mahdi. It is said that he will become the ruler of the West.

Bible in the Quran: Jesus in the Quran

The Noble Quran states that Jesus was one of the prophets and apostles of God whose birth was a miracle in that he was born without a father. His mother was Mary who was a pious and chaste nun of the Temple. Jesus’ mother has been praised very much in the Quran and there is a chapter dedicated to her by her name that tells the story of her giving birth to Jesus. The Quran states that God has chosen her as one of the best women in the world:

وَإِذْ قَالَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَا مَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَاكِ وَطَهَّرَكِ وَاصْطَفَاكِ عَلَىٰ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ

“And when the angels said, ‘O Mary, Allah has chosen you and purified you, and He has chosen you above the world’s women.” 59

God also gave her the good news of the birth of a son from her, named Jesus the Messiah, who would be distinguished in the world and the hereafter. 60

Bible in the Quran: Jesus, a Prophet to the Children of Israel

Muslims believe that Jesus was one of the great prophets of God who had his own sharia [religious code] [i.e. Christianity] and heavenly scripture [i.e. the Gospel] as stated in the Quran. The other prophets who had their own sharia and heavenly scripture are Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad. These prophets are known as the “prophets with strong resolve” (أولوا العَزم). Jesus was one of the prophets who performed many miracles in order to prove his prophethood. The prophethood of Jesus and his miracles have been mentioned in the Quran:

And [he will be] an apostle to the Children of Israel, [and he will declare,] “I have certainly brought you a sign from your Lord: I will create for you the form of a bird out of clay, then I will breathe into it, and it will become a bird by Allah’s leave. I heal the blind and the leper and I revive the dead by Allah’s leave. I will tell you what you have eaten and what you have stored in your houses. There is indeed a sign in that for you, should you be faithful. 61

Bible in the Quran: Is Jesus Son of God?

Unlike the Bible in which Jesus is called son of God by both Jesus himself and his disciples, the Quran strongly rejects such a belief, stating that these are false attributions of people. These claims have been made possibly due to the wonderful miracles of Jesus such as:

  • Being born without a father
  • Healing the blind
  • Healing the leper
  • Reviving the dead

In a conversation that takes place between God and Jesus in surah five, Maidah, God asks Jesus whether he has asked his people to take him as a God. Jesus denies such a thing:

وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّـهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَـٰهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ ۖ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ ۚ إِن كُنتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ ۚ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلَا أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ ﴿116﴾

مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَمَرْتَنِي بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ ۚ وَكُنتُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا مَّا دُمْتُ فِيهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا تَوَفَّيْتَنِي كُنتَ أَنتَ الرَّقِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنتَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ ﴿117﴾

And when Allah will say, ‘O Jesus son of Mary! Was it you who said to the people, ‘‘Take me and my mother for gods besides Allah’’?’ He will say, ‘Immaculate are You! It does not behoove me to say what I have no right to [say]. Had I said it, You would certainly have known it: You know whatever is in my self, and I do not know what is in Your Self. Indeed, You are knower of all that is Unseen. I did not say to them [anything] except what You had commanded me [to say]: ‘‘Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’’ And I was a witness to them so long as I was among them. But when You had taken me away, You Yourself were watchful over them, and You are witness to all things. 62

Moreover, many verses of the Quran state that God is immaculate from having any son or partner. 63 Instead, the Quran states that Jesus is one of the noble servants and prophets of God. 64

Bible in the Quran: What Would Happen if Such an Attribution is Made?

The Quran states that just by making the claim that God has taken a son and believing in such a false notion, the heavens, earth, and mountains are about to split asunder. The following passage of the Quran eloquently depicts rejection of such a belief:

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وَلَدًا ﴿88﴾

They say, ‘The All-beneficent has taken a son!’

لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا ﴿89﴾

You have certainly advanced something hideous!

تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا ﴿90﴾

The heavens are about to be rent apart at it, the earth to split open, and the mountains to collapse into bits,

أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ وَلَدًا ﴿91﴾

that they should ascribe a son to the All-beneficent!

وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا ﴿92﴾

It does not behoove the All-beneficent to take a son.

إِن كُلُّ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَبْدًا ﴿93﴾

There is none in the heavens and the earth but he comes to the All-beneficent as a servant.

لَّقَدْ أَحْصَاهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدًّا ﴿94﴾

Certainly He has counted them [all] and numbered them precisely,

وَكُلُّهُمْ آتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَرْدًا ﴿95﴾

and each of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection. 65

Bible in the Quran: The Similitude of Jesus is the Similitude of Adam

God says in the Quran that Jesus being born without a father is not so strange, as Adam who was the very first human being was born without a father or mother. This concept has been stated in surah Al-i ‘Imran:

إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَىٰ عِندَ اللَّـهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ ۖ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

“Indeed the case of Jesus with Allah is like the case of Adam: He created him from dust, then said to him, ‘Be,’ and he was.” 66

Bible in the Quran: Is the Quran Derived from the Old Testament?

Many Jews and Christians believe that the Quran is a made-up book that Prophet Muhammad derived from the priests and rabbis he met during the trade journeys he made with his uncle Abu Talib. This is because there are many similarities between the Quran and the Old Testament, especially concerning the stories that have been mentioned, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Abel and Cain, Noah, Ibraham, David and Goliath, Moses and the Pharaoh, and many other biblical stories.

However, how can a man remember all of these stories and memorize them just by briefly accompanying or seeing some Christian priests or Jewish rabbis on the way?

Prophet Muhammad had never read or written any book, as he was unlettered. Besides, many of the said narratives that have similarities with the Quran also have many differences. That is why God says that the Quran is a book that relates to the Children of Israel many things they differed about:

إِنَّ هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَقُصُّ عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَكْثَرَ الَّذِي هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

“This Quran recounts for the Children of Israel most of what they differ about.” 67

Bible in the Quran: Eloquence of the Quran

In the Quran, God says in surah ‘Ankabut that Prophet Muhammad never spoke or wrote a word from any book and with such eloquence as the Quran among his tribe before being sent as a Prophet to his people:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۖ وَمِنْ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ ۚ وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِآيَاتِنَا إِلَّا الْكَافِرُونَ ﴿47﴾

وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَابٍ وَلَا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ ۖ إِذًا لَّارْتَابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ ﴿48﴾

Thus We have sent down the Book to you; those to whom We have given the Book believe in it, and of these there are some who believe in it, and none contests Our signs except the faithless. You did not use to recite any scripture before it, nor did you write it with your right hand, for then the impugners would have been skeptical. 68

Of course, even afterwards, Prophet Muhammad did not read or write anything and this is what makes the Quran his everlasting miracle. This itself is a piece of evidence on the truthfulness of his prophethood as well as the Quran.

The eloquence and beauty of style of the Quran is to such an extent that the prominent Arab litterateurs of that time, such as Walid ibn Mughayrah (وَليد النِ مُغَيرَة), were amazed by it, yet stubbornly refused to believe in its veracity and called it “magic handed down from the past” (سِحرٌ يُؤثَر). 69

Bible in the Quran: News of the Unseen

After relating the stories of the past nations and prophets to Prophet Muhammad, God says in the Quran that these are news of the Unseen which he and his people had never been aware of:

تِلْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهَا إِلَيْكَۖ مَا كُنتَ تَعْلَمُهَا أَنتَ وَلَا قَوْمُكَ مِن قَبْلِ هَـٰذَاۖ فَاصْبِرْۖ إِنَّ الْعَاقِبَةَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

“These are accounts of the Unseen, which We reveal to you. Neither you nor your people used to know them before this. So be patient. Indeed the outcome will be in favour of the Godwary.” 70

All of these verses point to the fact that the Quran was not something Prophet Muhammad came up with from himself, but rather the true words of God that were revealed to him. Therefore, the Quran is the final Holy Scripture that was revealed to the final prophet, Muhammad, and God will protect it from being changed until the end of history as the Quran has stated itself. 71


References

  1. Quran 5:46.
  2. Quran 3:4.
  3. Quran 3:3-4 (Qarai).
  4. Quran 5:44.
  5. Quran 2:53, 87; 6:154; 11:110; 17:2; 23:49; 25:35; 28:43; 32:23; 40:53;
  6. Quran 21:48.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Quran 7:142.
  10. Quran 7:143.
  11. Quran 7:144.
  12. Quran 7:145.
  13. Cf. Quran 6:151-154.
  14. Quran 7:45 (Qarai).
  15. Quran 2:75.
  16. Quran 2:79.
  17. Quran 3:47.
  18. Quran 3:48.
  19. Quran 3:49.
  20. Quran 5:110.
  21. Quran 5:46 (Qarai).
  22. Ibid.
  23. Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 70.
  24. Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 221.
  25. Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 97; also see: Chapter 112.
  26. Quran 61:6 (Qarai).
  27. Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 216.
  28. Quran 4:157-158 (Qarai).
  29. Quran 3:39 (Qarai).
  30. Luke 1:11-13 (NIV).
  31. Quran 42:5 (Qarai).
  32. Luke 15:10 (NIV).
  33. Quran 56:63-64.
  34. 1 Corinthians 3:7 (NIV).
  35. Quran 2:224 (Qarai).
  36. Exodus 20:7 (NIV).
  37. Quran 17:23-24 (Qarai).
  38. Exodus 20:12 (NIV).
  39. Quran 2:255 (Qarai).
  40. Book of Revelation 4:11 (NIV).
  41. Quran 5:61 (Qarai).
  42. Exodus 23:20 (NIV).
  43. Cf. Gen 1:26-28; Gen 5:1-3; Gen 9:6.
  44. Gen 32:22-32.
  45. Gen 3:8.
  46. Exodus 19:20 (NIV).
  47. Cf. 1 Kings 22:23; 2 Chronicles 18:22; Ezekiel 14:9; Jeremiah 20:7; Jeremiah 4:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:11.
  48. Mark 1:1.
  49. Matthew 27:32-56.
  50. Cf. Quran 4:161.
  51. Quran 26:11.
  52. Quran 37:159.
  53. Quran 112:1.
  54. Quran 2:256.
  55. Quran 59-22-24 (Qarai).
  56. Quran 10:44.
  57. Quran 30:6.
  58. Quran 4:82 (Qarai).
  59. Quran 3:42 (Qarai).
  60. Quran 3:45.
  61. Quran 3:49 (Qarai).
  62. Quran 5:116-117 (Qarai).
  63. Quran 2:116.
  64. Quran 21:26.
  65. Quran 19:88-95 (Qarai)
  66. Quran 3:59 (Qarai).
  67. Quran 27:76 (Qarai).
  68. Quran 29:47-48 (Qarai).
  69. Quran 74:24 (Qarai).
  70. Quran 11:49 (Qarai).
  71. Quran 15:9.

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Abu Mahdi
Abu Mahdi
I'm Abu Mahdi, one of the writers of this blog. I have a BA in English literature and an MA in English language teaching. I am also a teacher and reciter of the Quran in the field of reading the Quran, tajweed, and maqamat. Currently, we are working on a course for learning tajweed of the Quran here on Islam4u.

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